TABLE 2

Plasma nonglucose substrate concentrations

Time (min)Nominal plasma glucose (mg/dl)
P
100100100100907152444444100100100
−300306090120150165190205255270285
Free fatty acids (μmol/l)
 Nondiabetic subjects
  Hypo349 ± 51347 ± 50277 ± 4598 ± 1283 ± 1444 ± 7*37 ± 6*41 ± 8*46 ± 8*50 ± 8*58 ± 9*61 ± 7*72 ± 7*0.009
  Hypo + meal367 ± 46364 ± 57265 ± 36117 ± 1792 ± 1482 ± 1377 ± 1289 ± 10104 ± 24147 ± 26135 ± 22131 ± 27140 ± 29
 Diabetic subjects
  Hypo360 ± 36357 ± 36282 ± 20168 ± 6116 ± 5*44 ± 4*45 ± 559 ± 6*65 ± 5*79 ± 5*88 ± 6*112 ± 18*117 ± 12*0.011
  Hypo + meal312 ± 53304 ± 47252 ± 12190 ± 6161 ± 985 ± 474 ± 9122 ± 18126 ± 16130 ± 4132 ± 5166 ± 20206 ± 35
Glycerol (μmol/l)
 Nondiabetic subjects
  Hypo63 ± 468 ± 655 ± 636 ± 7*21 ± 4*17 ± 3*16 ± 3*15 ± 2*22 ± 2*31 ± 5*44 ± 675 ± 493 ± 90.018
  Hypo + meal67 ± 462 ± 557 ± 451 ± 541 ± 640 ± 640 ± 639 ± 644 ± 647 ± 553 ± 584 ± 1398 ± 14
 Diabetic subjects
  Hypo72 ± 876 ± 965 ± 554 ± 452 ± 446 ± 444 ± 641 ± 3*52 ± 4*55 ± 6*69 ± 5*75 ± 5*81 ± 5*0.023
  Hypo + meal77 ± 972 ± 1060 ± 456 ± 453 ± 347 ± 249 ± 266 ± 275 ± 1080 ± 1295 ± 1295 ± 12106 ± 14
β-Hydroxybutyrate (μmol/l)
 Nondiabetic subjects
  Hypo298 ± 103307 ± 71295 ± 71163 ± 6689 ± 4445 ± 1727 ± 921 ± 7*33 ± 7*33 ± 7*37 ± 11*38 ± 15*48 ± 16*0.041
  Hypo + meal337 ± 66324 ± 54226 ± 31140 ± 2299 ± 1993 ± 8102 ± 10101 ± 3126 ± 6165 ± 20133 ± 13112 ± 13117 ± 19
 Diabetic subjects
  Hypo196 ± 16187 ± 24144 ± 2378 ± 1961 ± 1743 ± 945 ± 1153 ± 1163 ± 12*65 ± 16*71 ± 16*76 ± 17*160 ± 23*0.012
  Hypo + meal211 ± 20202 ± 20149 ± 12105 ± 1272 ± 1653 ± 1253 ± 1250 ± 11155 ± 19208 ± 22269 ± 9352 ± 26451 ± 54
Lactate (μmol/l)
 Nondiabetic subjects
  Hypo1.0 ± 0.11.0 ± 0.10.9 ± 0.11.0 ± 0.1*1.1 ± 0.1*1.0 ± 0.1*1.2 ± 0.11.4 ± 0.11.9 ± 0.2*1.9 ± 0.2*1.6 ± 0.2*1.5 ± 0.21.4 ± 0.20.009
  Hypo + meal1.0 ± 0.11.0 ± 0.11.0 ± 0.11.4 ± 0.11.4 ± 0.11.4 ± 0.11.4 ± 0.11.5 ± 0.12.1 ± 0.22.3 ± 0.21.9 ± 0.11.7 ± 0.11.4 ± 0.1
 Diabetic subjects
  Hypo0.9 ± 0.10.9 ± 0.11.0 ± 0.11.2 ± 0.11.3 ± 0.11.2 ± 0.11.3 ± 0.11.4 ± 0.2*1.5 ± 0.2*1.5 ± 0.1*1.3 ± 0.2*1.2 ± 0.11.2 ± 0.10.039
  Hypo + meal1.0 ± 0.11.0 ± 0.11.2 ± 0.11.4 ± 0.11.3 ± 0.11.4 ± 0.11.4 ± 0.11.7 ± 0.21.8 ± 0.21.8 ± 0.21.6 ± 0.11.4 ± 0.21.4 ± 0.2
  • Data are means ± SE.

  • *

    * P < 0.05 vs. hypo + meal.