TABLE 1

Baseline characteristics of patients with type 1 diabetes and nondiabetic control subjects stratified by gender

Men
Women
Type 1 diabetic patientsControl subjectsType 1 diabetic patientsControl subjects
n301382355382
Age (years)37.2 ± 9.039.9 ± 8.8*35.8 ± 9.337.1 ± 16.0
Duration of diabetes (years)23.6 ± 8.922.7 ± 8.7
Insulin dose (units/kg−1 · day−1)0.6 ± 0.30.6 ± 0.3
HbA1c (%)7.8 ± 1.25.5 ± 0.5*7.9 ± 1.35.3 ± 0.5*
Cholesterol (mg/dl)
 Total175.9 ± 38.9195.9 ± 34.4*177.1 ± 32.9183.9 ± 31.5
 HDL51.3 ± 12.242.9 ± 10.5*60.5 ± 15.657.8 ± 14.5
 LDL105.1 ± 31.7122.2 ± 28.4*98.3 ± 27.8105.8 ± 26.7*
Triglyceride (mg/dl)85.6 ± 17.8131.6 ± 17.6*83.0 ± 19.292.0 ± 19.2
Hypertensive (%)14.612.36.55.2
SBP (mmHg)122 ± 11.9118 ± 10.6*115 ± 12.6110 ± 12.2*
DBP (mmHg)80 ± 8.281 ± 7.176 ± 8.176 ± 7.8
BMI (kg/m2)26.7 ± 4.127.1 ± 3.626.0 ± 5.225.0 ± 4.9
BMI ≥27 kg/m2 (%)42.246.931.825.6
WHR0.88 ± 0.060.89 ± 0.050.79 ± 0.070.78 ± 0.07
Waist (cm)87.2 ± 8.187.2 ± 7.578.6 ± 9.676.4 ± 9.2*
IAF L23 (cm3)52.5 ± 17.972.5 ± 20.2*28.3 ± 19.527.1 ± 20.2
Serum creatinine (mg/dl)1.4 ± 0.41.3 ± 0.31.2 ± 0.31.1 ± 0.2*
Albumin excretion rate (μg/min)134.2 ± 18.819.4 ± 3.0*65.2 ± 8.26.1 ± 2.6
Homocysteine (μmol/l)9.4 ± 3.59.2 ± 3.17.5 ± 2.57.5 ± 2.4
Ever smoked (%)27.929.631.330.4
Insulin resistance0.126 ± 0.020.106 ± 0.01*0.104 ± 0.020.088 ± 0.09*
  • Data are group means ± SD for most data, geometric means for triglycerides and IAF 23, and interquartile range for albumin excretion rate and insulin resistance, all after adjustment for age. N = 1,420.

  • *

    * P < 0.001,

  • P < 0.05,

  • P < 0.01 for difference between type 1 diabetic patients and control subjects of same gender. Hypertensive = SBP ≥135 mmHg or DBP ≥85 mmHg or on treatment; insulin resistance = 1/estimated glucose disposal rate (EGDR), where EDGR = 24.31 − 12.22 (WHR) − 3.29 (hypertension) − 0.57 (HbA1c).