TABLE 1

Clinical characteristics of the patients

Case (1st)Case (2nd)Control (1st)Control (2nd)
n9446694266
Sex (M:F)63:31305:16137:57*125:141*
Age57.9 ± 12.559.6 ± 13.562.7 ± 9.962.9 ± 12.0
Duration (years)18.6 ± 9.717.3 ± 10.416.2 ± 8.414.6 ± 9.3
HbA1c (%)7.7 ± 1.37.8 ± 1.17.4 ± 1.17.1 ± 1.2
S-Cr (mg/dl)1.37 ± 0.831.48 ± 1.230.66 ± 0.20†0.67 ± 0.15†
SBP (mmHg)145 ± 21137 ± 27136 ± 19.0134 ± 20
DBP (mmHg)77 ± 1374 ± 1375 ± 1075 ± 10
  • Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated. Statistical significance between any two groups was analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Sheffe’s test.

  • *

    * χ2 test; P < 0.001 vs. case (1st), vs. case (2nd).