TABLE 1

Characteristics of participants with type 1 diabetes

No retinopathyBackground retinopathyP
n4625
Age (years)26.4 ± 4.6 (26, 20–36)31.5 ± 6.0 (32, 21–44)0.23
Sex (male: female)23:2314:110.63
Secondary education (years)6.9 ± 2.3 (6, 4–11)7.3 ± 2.4 (8, 4–11)0.95
NART (premorbid cognitive ability)31.9 ± 6.0 (32, 15–42)32.5 ± 6.6 (33, 16–41)0.94
HbA1c at time of study (5.0–6.5%)8.4 ± 1.28.9 ± 1.30.83
Blood pressure (mmHg)123/73 ± 14/10121/74 ± 12/110.56
Age at diagnosis of T1DM (years)9.5 ± 4.4 (9, 1–16)9.9 ± 4.0 (10, 1–17)0.67
Duration of diabetes (years)17.0 ± 4.6 (16, 10–30)21.6 ± 5.9 (22, 10–31)0.052
Severe hypoglycemia
 Total lifetime episodes6.0 (0–200)4.0 (0–45)0.86
 1st Tertile0.0 (0–0)0.0 (0–0)
 2nd Tertile5.0 (1–10)4.0 (1–10)0.68
 3rd Tertile26.5 (11–200)24.0 (12–45)0.67
  • Data are means ± SD (median, range). T1DM, type 1 diabetes mellitus. HbA1c: nondiabetic range 5.0–6.5% (by high-performance liquid chromatography).