TABLE 1

Relative activity proposed for anabolic (NPY and AGRP) and catabolic (POMC and CART) arcuate nucleus neuropeptide systems in the basal state (at neutral energy balance) and in response to decreases or increases of adiposity

↓Adiposity (↓leptin and insulin)Basal↑Adiposity (↑leptin and insulin)
↑↑NPY↓NPY↓↓NPY
↑↑AGRP↓AGRP↓↓AGRP
↓POMC↑POMC↑↑POMC
↓CART↑CART↑↑CART
  • Note that food intake in the basal state is constrained by tonic activity of catabolic signaling pathways, with anabolic pathways being relatively inactive.