TABLE 1

Literature supporting chronic oxidative stress as a mechanism for glucose toxicity of the β-cell

References
ROS can be formed from glucose17, 18, 23, 24
Islets contain unusually low concentrations of antioxidant enzymes and activity20, 23, 2529
Antioxidant drugs protect the β-cell from the effects of chronic exposure to supraphysiological glucose levels12, 22, 3037
Antioxidant gene transfer techniques enhance protection of β-cells from oxidative stress23, 3845
Type 2 diabetes in humans is associated with increased markers of oxidative stress4653