TABLE 3

Risk estimates of individuals according to circulating cytokine levels

MedianAge- and sex-adjusted analysis+BMI-adjusted analysisAdjusted for all risk factors*Adjusted for all risk factors and HbA1c
IL-1β
 Category 10.09 (0.09–0.09)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
 Category 20.84 (0.13–5.52)1.20 (0.84–1.72)1.18 (0.79–1.75)1.19 (0.78–1.79)1.20 (0.74–1.96)
CRP
 Category 10.62 (0.09–1.49)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
 Category 23.57 (1.50–39.7)3.5 (2.4–5.1)2.2 (1.5–3.3)1.9 (1.2–2.9)1.9 (1.2–3.2)
IL-6
 Category 10.66 (0.11–0.90)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
 Category 21.19 (0.90–1.45)1.77 (0.97–3.29)1.36 (0.72–2.6)1.22 (0.64–2.38)1.14 (0.54–2.45)
 Category 31.80 (1.45–2.24)3.88 (2.21–7.03)2.17 (1.18–4.07)1.92 (1.02–3.67)1.72 (0.83–3.60)
 Category 43.30 (2.24–10.8)7.34 (4.18–13.32)3.26 (1.76–6.19)2.75 (1.44–5.34)2.57 (1.24–5.47)
TNF-α
 Category 10.79 (0.35–1.11)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
 Category 21.34 (1.11–1.56)1.85 (1.11–3.11)1.66 (0.94–2.95)1.62 (0.90–2.94)1.39 (0.95–3.85)
 Category 31.82 (1.56–2.26)1.40 (0.83–2.39)1.05 (0.58–1.89)1.04 (0.57–1.92)1.06 (0.51–2.21)
 Category 42.94 (2.26–15.15)2.30 (1.37–3.90)1.70 (0.96–3.04)1.52 (0.84–2.78)1.57 (0.78–3.18)
  • Data are OR (95% CI), unless otherwise indicated.

  • Median (category limits),

  • Median (interquartile range). Individuals were divided into quartiles according to their baseline plasma concentrations of IL-6 or TNF-α. They were dichotomized according to their levels of IL-1β and CRP;

  • *

    * adjusted for age, sex, BMI, WHR, sporting activities, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and educational attainment.