Interaction between IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α on diabetes risk

OR (95% CI)
Interaction TNF-α/IL-1β
 Reference (TNF-α low/IL-1β undetectable)1
 TNF-α (high)0.89 (0.45–1.73)
 IL-1β (undetectable)0.95 (0.54–1.67)
 Interaction term TNF*IL-1β (high/detectable)2.51 (0.84–7.57)
Interaction TNF-α/IL-6
 Reference (TNF-α low/IL-6 low)1
 TNF-α (high)1.32 (0.68–2.52)
 IL-6 (high)2.15 (1.12–4.11)
 Interaction term TNF*IL-6 (both high)0.7 (0.23–2.16)
Interaction IL-1β/IL-6
 Reference (IL-6 low/IL-1β undetectable)1
 IL-1β (undetectable)0.8 (0.43–1.44)
 IL-6 (high)1.14 (0.55–2.32)
 Interaction term IL-1β*IL-6 (detectable/high)3.31 (1.14–9.87)
  • Data shown were calculated after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, WHR, sporting activities, HbA1c smoking status, alcohol consumption, and educational attainment.