TABLE 1

Basic characteristics, metabolic variables, lipoprotein concentrations, inflammatory markers, endothelial injury markers, and other markers in relatives and control subjects

RelativesControl subjectsP
SexMale (n = 45)Male (n = 40)
Age (years)43.1 ± 8.645.1 ± 6.9
BMI (kg/m2)25.8 ± 2.624.6 ± 2.6<0.05
Waist circumference (cm)94 ± 0.990 ± 0.9<0.05
Body fat (kg)19.5 ± 6.116.5 ± 6.6<0.03
Blood pressure
 Systolic (mmHg)128 ± 16118 ± 9<0.01
 Diastolic (mmHg)76 ± 673 ± 7<0.05
Oral glucose tolerance test
 Fasting plasma proinsulin (pmol/l)11 ± 79 ± 6
 Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)4.9 ± 0.54.4 ± 0.3<0.0001
 Fasting plasma insulin (pmol/l)54 ± 2448 ± 30
 Plasma glucose at 120 min (mmol/l)5.0 ± 1.24.0 ± 1.1<0.0001
 Plasma insulin at 120 min (pmol/l)246 ± 174168 ± 126<0.05
Si (×10−4 × min−1 per μU/ml)3.3 ± 2.44.5 ± 2.6<0.01
Insulin secretion rate
 First-phase insulin response (0–10 min) (μU/min)409 ± 305412 ± 300
Lipoprotein concentration
 Fasting serum total cholesterol (mmol/l)4.9 ± 0.94.4 ± 1.2
 Fasting serum HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.15 ± 0.231.15 ± 0.45
 Fasting serum LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.2 ± 0.82.7 ± 0.9<0.01
 Fasting serum triglyceride (mmol/l)1.26 ± 0.601.37 ± 1.20
 Fasting plasma free fatty acid (mmol/l)0.48 ± 0.180.49 ± 0.23
 LDL size (nm)26.0 ± 1.2226.0 ± 1.20
Inflammatory markers
 Serum C-reactive protein, (mg/l)1.28 ± 2.040.76 ± 0.68<0.1
 Plasma fibrinogen (g/l)2.55 ± 0.382.49 ± 0.52
Endothelial injury markers
 Serum VCAM-1 (ng/ml)438 ± 72462 ± 76
 Serum ICAM-1 (ng/ml)249 ± 50233 ± 58
 Serum E-selectin (ng/ml)56.8 ± 19.651.2 ± 16.4
Other markers
 Serum adiponectin (μg/ml)6.6 ± 1.88.1 ± 3.0<0.03
 Plasma PAI-1 (IU/ml)19.4 ± 15.413.0 ± 14.7<0.01
  • Data are mean ± SD. ICAM, intercellular adhesion molecule; VCAM, vascular cell adhesion molecule.