TABLE 1

Association of FOXC2 variants with diabetes-related traits in Pima Indians with normal glucose tolerance

−512C/T
P−350G/T
P
C/CC/TT/TG/GG/TT/T
n12765171127423
Age28 ± 126 ± 130 ± 20.0927 ± 127 ± 127 ± 10.78
Percentage body fat33 ± 132 ± 328 ± 20.0232 ± 133 ± 134 ± 20.41
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl)92 ± 192 ± 190 ± 20.9291 ± 191 ± 197 ± 20.006
2-h plasma glucose (mg/dl)127 ± 3127 ± 4122 ± 90.66126 ± 3126 ± 4136 ± 50.31
Fasting plasma insulin (μU/ml)43 ± 240 ± 332 ± 40.8742 ± 240 ± 240 ± 40.68
2-h plasma insulin (μU/ml)228 ± 16212 ± 24164 ± 290.77225 ± 19199 ± 18242 ± 290.57
Acute insulin response (μU/ml)269 ± 16243 ± 24223 ± 280.38262 ± 16260 ± 24232 ± 340.43
Basal glucose turnover (mg · kg EMBS−1 · min−1)1.9 ± 0.021.9 ± 0.021.8 ± 0.020.361.9 ± 0.021.9 ± 0.031.9 ± 0.10.38
Glucose disposal for low-dose insulin clamp (mg · kg EMBS−1 · min−1)2.46 ± 0.092.68 ± 0.123.01 ± 0.280.592.56 ± 0.102.58 ± 0.102.66 ± 0.250.65
Glucose Disposal for High Dose Insulin Clamp (mg · kg EMBS−1 · min−1)8.4 ± 0.28.6 ± 0.39.6 ± 0.60.428.5 ± 0.28.6 ± 0.28.7 ± 0.40.82
HOMA-IR10.3 ± 0.59.6 ± 0.87.7 ± 1.30.7610.0 ± 0.69.5 ± 0.610.9 ± 1.50.72
Fasting plasma triglycerides (mg/dl)123 ± 6 (n = 70)119 ± 9 (n = 45)117 ± 16 (n = 11)0.87118 ± 7 (n = 60)118 ± 8 (n = 43)135 ± 9 (n = 18)0.87
Free fatty acids (μmol/l)361 ± 12 (n = 78)364 ± 17 (n = 45)315 ± 20 (n = 12)0.09358 ± 13 (n = 66)355 ± 14 (n = 49)368 ± 31 (n = 20)0.84
  • P values were calculated after adjusting for age and sex for percent body fat; age, sex, and percent body fat for 2-h plasma glucose, insulin, and log10 glucose disposal for the low- and high-dose insulin clamps. The P value for acute insulin response was calculated after adjusting for age, sex, percent body fat, and log10 glucose disposal for the low-dose insulin clamp. EMBS, estimated metabolic body size; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance.