TABLE 2

Sex-specific association of FOXC2 variants with diabetes-related traits in Pima Indians with normal glucose tolerance

−512C/T
−350G/T
C/CC/T + T/TPGGG/T + T/TP
Age
 Males (n)28 ± 1 (77)27 ± 1 (53)0.6527 ± 1 (72)28 ± 1 (58)0.80
 Females (n)27 ± 1 (57)26 ± 1 (33)0.3827 ± 1 (46)27 ± 1 (44)0.68
Percent body fat
 Males (n)29 ± 1 (77)26 ± 1 (53)0.3128 ± 1 (72)28 ± 1 (58)0.91
 Females (n)40 ± 1 (57)38 ± 1 (33)0.2339 ± 1 (46)40 ± 1 (44)0.74
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl)
 Males (n)89 ± 1 (77)90 ± 1 (53)0.4789 ± 1 (72)90 ± 1 (58)0.43
 Females (n)96 ± 1 (57)94 ± 2 (33)0.7494 ± 1 (46)97 ± 1 (44)0.16
2-h plasma glucose (mg/dl)
 Males (n)119 ± 3 (77)120 ± 5 (53)0.48118 ± 4 (72)121 ± 4 (58)0.65
 Females (n)138 ± 4 (57)134 ± 5 (33)0.77134 ± 5 (46)139 ± 4 (44)0.32
Fasting plasma insulin (μU/ml)
 Males (n)38 ± 2 (77)35 ± 3 (53)0.5039 ± 3 (72)35 ± 2 (58)0.34
 Females (n)48 ± 3 (57)41 ± 4 (33)0.1045 ± 3 (46)47 ± 3 (44)0.68
2-h plasma insulin (μU/ml)
 Males (n)199 ± 21 (77)176 ± 26 (53)0.88203 ± 26 (72)173 ± 16 (58)0.91
 Females (n)277 ± 21 (57)225 ± 28 (33)0.14251 ± 22 (46)265 ± 25 (43)0.59
Acute insulin response (μU/ml)
 Males (n)271 ± 20 (77)247 ± 25 (53)0.74266 ± 21 (72)256 ± 23 (58)0.97
 Females (n)256 ± 26 (50)214 ± 20 (21)0.94244 ± 22 (36)242 ± 33 (35)0.52
Basal glucose turnover (mg · kg EMBS−1 · min−1)
 Males (n)1.86 ± 0.03 (77)1.85 ± 0.03 (53)0.721.84 ± 0.02 (71)1.88 ± 0.03 (57)0.13
 Females (n)1.95 ± 0.03 (57)2.05 ± 0.04 (33)<0.00012.01 ± 0.03 (46)1.96 ± 0.04 (44)0.22
Glucose disposal for low-dose insulin clamp (mg · kg EMBS−1 · min−1)
 Males (n)2.56 ± 0.13 (77)2.93 ± 0.15 (53)0.362.67 ± 0.13 (72)2.76 ± 0.15 (58)0.47
 Females (n)2.34 ± 0.09 (57)2.53 ± 0.12 (33)0.152.41 ± 0.09 (46)2.41 ± 0.11 (44)0.91
Glucose disposal for high-dose insulin clamp (mg · kg EMBS−1 · min−1)
 Males (n)8.48 ± 0.24 (77)9.35 ± 0.32 (53)0.188.77 ± 0.27 (72)8.90 ± 0.27 (58)0.63
 Females (n)8.36 ± 0.25 (57)8.17 ± 0.36 (33)0.578.28 ± 0.30 (46)8.30 ± 0.28 (44)0.93
HOMA-IR
 Males (n)8.8 ± 0.5 (77)8.6 ± 0.80.439.3 ± 0.78.0 ± 0.50.22
 Females (n)12.7 ± 0.8 (77)10.8 ± 1.50.3211.6 ± 1.012.6 ± 1.00.47
Fasting plasma triglycerides (mg/dl)
 Males (n)115 ± 8 (36)131 ± 14 (26)0.07121 ± 11 (34)123 ± 10 (28)0.74
 Females (n)129 ± 9 (37)105 ± 7 (26)0.04111 ± 9 (27)125 ± 9 (36)0.78
Free fatty acids (μmol/l)
 Males (n)327 ± 15 (43)325 ± 16 (31)0.84344 ± 15 (38)307 ± 16 (36)0.04
 Females (n)392 ± 15 (41)385 ± 22 (29)0.66373 ± 19 (33)404 ± 17 (37)0.32
  • Legend same as Table 1. Due to the low frequency of the rare alleles, for the statistical analyses the homozygotes for each rare allele were combined with the heterozygotes.