TABLE 2

Maternal size, glucose/insulin variables, and maternal morbidity 8 years after delivery according to sex-specific thirds of offspring birthweight

Offspring birth weight tertile (sex-specific)
Adjusted for
1 (n = 154)2 (n = 152)3 (n = 153)Maternal age, offspring sexP+Offspring birth order (P)+SES (P)+Maternal BMI (P)
Birth weight (kg)2.262.753.28
Anthropometry
  Height (cm)151.4153.6154.42.77 (1.62–3.92)0.0010.0010.001
  Weight (kg)49.551.955.75.37 (3.34–7.41)0.0010.0010.001
  BMI (kg/m2)21.622.023.31.47 (0.64–2.30)0.0010.0010.001
  Waist (cm)70.772.376.14.33 (2.26–6.41)0.0010.0010.001
  WHR0.760.760.780.02 (0.004–0.03)0.0140.0090.019
  Fat mass (kg)15.917.119.32.98 (1.74–4.23)0.0010.0010.001
  Head circumference (cm)52.853.053.30.56 (0.26–0.86)0.0010.0010.001
Glucose/insulin
  Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)4.94.85.01.5* (−3.0 to 5.1)0.460.480.74−0.3 (−4.8 to 4.1)*0.86
  2-h plasma glucose (OGTT) (mmol/l)5.65.56.04.0* (−3.0 to 11.6)0.210.260.47−1.0 (−7.7 to 6.0)*0.76
  Fasting Plasma Insulin (pmol/l)26.831.534.727.0* (9.4–47.6)0.0020.0020.00716.2 (−1.0 to 35.0)*0.07
  30-min insulin increment3.24.84.50.70 (−0.88 to 2.28)0.380.390.470.47 (−1.27 to 2.2)0.61
  Plasma split 32-33 insulin (pmol/l)6.26.26.810.5* (−4.9 to 28.4)0.170.280.71−5.8 (−18.9 to 8.3)*0.35
  Plasma proinsulin (pmol/l)4.24.24.30.5* (−10.4 to 12.7)0.930.890.65−8.6 (−19.0 to 1.0)*0.08
  HOMA-IR1.281.421.6122.1* (7.2–41.9)0.0040.0050.0257.2 (−5.8 to 23.4)*0.29
Glucose/insulin excluding IGT and diabetes
  Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)4.74.74.51.5* (−2.0 to 5.1)0.380.300.391.0 (−2.0 to 5.1)*0.52
  Fasting plasma insulin (pmol/l)27.230.134.225.6* (7.2–49.2)0.0040.0030.01312.7 (−5.8 to 33.6)*0.12
  HOMA-IR1.241.311.4820.9* (5.1–39.1)0.0090.0060.0297.2 (−5.8 to 24.6)*0.29
Maternal morbidity
  Obesity (BMI ≥25 kg/m2)3034582.43 (1.51–3.91)0.0010.0010.001
  Central obesity (WHR >0.85)916191.81 (0.90–3.64)0.0980.110.12
  Adiposity (total body fat >35%)5262761.78 (1.17–2.72)0.0070.010.032
  Q4 HOMA-IR2836461.68 (1.04–2.72)0.040.0510.161.12 (0.64–1.96)0.71
  IGT1613161.08 (0.55–2.12)0.830.950.920.78 (0.38–1.61)0.52
  Diabetes (known + new)2 + 30 + 34 + 40.99 (0.34–2.91)0.99, 0.180.870.900.86 (0.28–2.65)0.79
  Plasma cholesterol >5.1 mmol/l1015131.07 (0.51–2.24)0.850.870.690.76 (0.34–1.70)0.51
  HDL cholesterol <1.0 mmol/l6964700.85 (0.56–1.29)0.460.430.560.94 (0.46–1.16)0.18
  Plasma triglycerides >1.7 mmol/l1010192.28 (1.09–4.73)0.0270.040.0292.17 (1.01–4.70)0.05
  Hypertension (known + new)5 + 72 + 83 + 91.29 (0.58–2.83)0.530.600.721.20 (0.44–2.34)0.97
  Metabolic syndrome816242.76 (1.40–5.40)0.0030.0080.0132.16 (0.99–4.69)0.054
  • Anthropometric data are means, and glucose/insulin data are geometric means. The outcomes are change per 1-kg increase in offspring birth weight (percentage change for logged variables) and change in odds for maternal morbidity.

  • Significance for quadradic term. Metabolic syndrome based on World Health Organization 1999 criteria. Q4, uppermost quartile.