TABLE 3

Paternal size, glucose/insulin variables, and paternal morbidity measures 8 years after birth of the offspring according to sex-specific thirds of offspring birthweight

Offspring birth weight tertile (sex-specific)
Adjusted for
1 (n = 132)2 (n = 135)3 (n = 128)Paternal age, offspring sexP+SES (P)+Paternal BMI (P)
Birth weight (kg)2.262.743.28
Anthropometry
  Height (cm)164.6165.9167.72.89 (1.63–4.15)0.0010.001
  Weight (kg)60.964.364.83.95 (1.63–6.27)0.0010.001
  BMI (kg/m2)22.623.323.00.60 (−0.17 to 1.38)0.1260.126
  Waist (cm)83.987.386.52.55 (0.35–4.75)0.0230.034
  WHR0.890.910.900.006 (−0.007 to 0.019)0.390.51
  Fat mass (kg)14.716.516.21.74 (0.55–2.93)0.0040.005
  Head circmference (cm)54.854.955.10.37 (0.26–0.86)0.0490.057
Glucose/insulin
  Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)5.05.25.11.7* (−3.2 to 7.0)0.500.710.89
  2-h plasma glucose (OGTT) (mmol/l)6.36.56.5−0.5* (−8.3 to 8.0)0.910.680.54
  Fasting plasma insulin (pmol/l)29.133.133.09.0* (−9.9 to 31.0)0.340.380.68
  30-min insulin increment3.65.26.53.81 (−0.02 to 7.65)0.0510.0550.048
  Plasma split 32-33 insulin (pmol/l)11.515.112.010.2* (−8.8 to 33.6)0.310.250.48
  Plasma proinsulin (pmol/l)7.49.87.63.8* (−13.1 to 23.4)0.680.570.97
  HOMA-IR1.732.181.909.4* (−8.6 to 32.3)0.320.350.66
Glucose/insulin excluding IGT and diabetes
  Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)4.84.94.80.7* (−3.4 to 5.1)0.740.990.85
  Fasting plasma insulin (pmol/l)28.030.129.86.1* (−13.9 to 30.9)0.580.520.69
  HOMA-IR1.541.791.554.7* (−13.9 to 27.1)0.650.640.84
Paternal morbidity
  Obesity (BMI ≥25 kg/m2)3140371.45 (0.89–2.36)0.130.16
  Central obesity (WHR >0.90)6885711.38 (0.88–2.14)0.160.27
  Adiposity (total body fat >25%)6176671.45 (0.94–2.24)0.0950.12
  Q4 HOMA-IR2341291.25 (0.75–2.10)0.390.440.74
  IGT1625221.17 (0.65–2.10)0.590.740.86
  Diabetic (known + new)2 + 105 + 72 + 70.65 (0.29–1.47)0.310.220.16
  Plasma cholesterol >5.1 mmol/l2533311.43 (0.85–2.40)0.180.200.27
  HDL cholesterol <0.9 mmol/l6269591.07 (0.69–1.64)0.770.500.64
  Plasma triglycerides >1.7 mmol/l3742391.37 (0.86–2.19)0.190.310.44
  Hypertension (known + new)6 + 199 + 267 + 160.95 (0.56–1.62)0.860.990.74
  Metabolic syndrome2642251.10 (0.66–1.82)0.720.810.74
  • Anthropometric data are means, and glucose/insulin data are geometric means. The outcomes are change per 1-kg increase in offspring birth weight (percentage change for logged variables) and change in odds for paternal morbidity. Metabolic syndrome is based on World Health Organization 1999 criteria. Q4, uppermost quartile.