TABLE 1

Mean expression difference between nondiabetic, new-onset diabetic, and 1-month diabetic mice

Gene nameAccession IDFunctional groupRegulatory proteins
New onset versus control
Scd1 (stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase)NM_009127Lipid desaturaseTGF-β, Insulin, PPAR-γ
Gpx3 (glutathione peroxidase 3)NM_008161AntioxidantTGF-β, TNF-α, PPAR-γ, GH
Nfe212 (NF-E2 related factor 2)NM_010902Transcription antioxidantAntioxidant
Tcp1 (t-complex polypeptide 1)NM_013686Actin tubulin foldingIL3
Slc12a6 (solute carrier family 12, member 6)NM_133648Solute carrierTNF-α
MMU47435 (mouse mitochondrial DNA type 6)U47435
Hao3 (hydroxyacid oxidase 3)NM_019545Hydroxy-acid oxidation
Rplp1 (ribosomal protein large P1)NM_018853Ribosomal protein
2210412K09Rik (Riken cDNA 2210412K09)NM_029814
Ndufa7 (NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1α subcomplex)NM_023202Oxidative phosphorylationTGF-β
Pkd2 (polycystic kidney disease 2)NM_008861Channel
Rp137aNM_009084Ribosomal protein
Hipk2NM_010433
Acatn (acetyl-coenzyme A transporter)NM_015728Ganglioside O-acetylation
Morf411 (mortality factor 4 like 1)NM_024431
Psmb1 (proteasome subunit β type 1)NM_011185Protease
Rps23 (ribosomal protein S23)NM_024175Ribosomal protein
Vapa (vesicle-associated membrane protein associated protein A)NM_013933
Cfl1 (cofilin 1)NM_007687Actin polymerization
Tacstd1 (tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 1)NM_008532
Cd24aNM_009846Immunity
Sod1 (superoxide dismutase 1)X06683AntioxidantPPAR-γ, PPAR-α, GH
Ccnd1 (cyclin D1)NM_007631Cell cycle G1/STGF-β, PPAR-γ
Zfp3611 (zinc finger protein 36, C3H type-like 1)NM_007564TranscriptInsulin
Rp121 (ribosomal protein L21)NM_019647Ribosomal protein
Cox7b (cytochrome C oxydase subunit VIIb)NM_025379Oxidative phosphorylation
MGC47046 (hypothetical protein MGC47046)BC016415
Oaz1 (ornithine decarboxylase antizyme)NM_008753Polyamine transportTesterone
Long term versus control
Eef1a1 (eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 α1)M22432Elongation factorEGF
Fkbp4 (FK506 binding protein 4)X17069Steroid receptor
Actb (actin, β cytoplasmic)NM_007393
Edr (erythroid differentiation regulator)NM_133362
IDH1 (human) (homolog to isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 [NADP+])NM_005896CarbohydrateThyroid hormone
Atp5g3 (rat) (homolog to ATP synthase)NM_053756ATP synthesis
Lipid, VLDLPPAR-γ, PPAR-α, TNF-α,
Lpl (lipoprotein lipase)NM_008509IFN-α
New-onset versus long-term diabetes
Atp1b1 (ATPase, NA+/K+ transporting, β1 polypeptide)NM_009721Na K transportTNF-α, IL-1α, insulin
Ly6a (lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus A)NM_010738T-cell activationINF-γ
Slc25a3 (solute carrier family 25 [mitochondrial carrier; phosphate carrier], member 3)NM_133668ChannelTNF-α
Cat (catalase)NM_009804AntioxidantTGF-β-1, GH
Hspa8 (heat shock protein 8)NM_031165ChaperoneTGF-β, PPAR-γ
Ldh2 (lactate dehydrogenase 2, B chain)NM_008492Anaerobic fermentationTNF-α, IL-1
  • G1, nondiabetic mice; G2, new-onset diabetic; G3, 1-month diabetic; GH, growth hormone; IFN, interferon; IL, interleukin.