TABLE 1

Effect of 8 weeks of intranasal insulin administration in men

InsulinPlaceboP
Body weight (kg)78.12 ± 0.5779.84 ± 0.57≤0.05
BMI (kg/m2)23.02 ± 0.1723.51 ± 0.17≤0.05
Body fat (kg)12.25 ± 0.6114.12 ± 0.61≤0.05
Body cell mass (kg)37.20 ± 0.4537.30 ± 0.45≤0.88
ECM/BCM0.75 ± 0.010.77 ± 0.01≤0.17
Lean body mass (kg)65.80 ± 0.7265.79 ± 0.63≤0.99
Total body water (kg)47.92 ± 0.4348.15 ± 0.43≤0.71
Extracellular water (kg)19.42 ± 0.2319.48 ± 0.23≤0.84
Waist circumference (cm)81.06 ± 0.8483.43 ± 0.84≤0.05
Leptin (ng/ml)2.06 ± 0.292.86 ± 0.25≤0.05
Insulin (μU/ml)6.81 ± 2.819.04 ± 2.69≤0.58
Glucose (mg/dl)85.99 ± 2.0888.08 ± 2.08≤0.48
ACTH (pg/ml)22.52 ± 2.5225.02 ± 2.41≤0.48
Resting energy expenditure (kcal/day)1,892.67 ± 58.521,847.03 ± 53.05≤0.58
Heart rate (bpm)67.29 ± 2.9160.17 ± 2.65≤0.09
HRV LF/HF1.55 ± 0.422.37 ± 0.54≤0.25
Hunger FEV4.28 ± 0.545.24 ± 0.51≤0.22
Hunger gradient−0.36 ± 0.360.99 ± 0.36≤0.02
  • Data are means ± SE (baseline adjusted, as derived from ANCOVA). ECM/BCM, ratio of extracellular mass (ECM) to body cell mass (BCM); HRV LF/HF, heart rate variability (HRV) expressed as the ratio of low-frequency (LF) to high-frequency (HF) power; hunger FEV, hunger score as derived from eating behavior questionnaire FEV (n = 12 for each group).