TABLE 2

Effects of 8 weeks of intranasal insulin administration in women

InsulinPlaceboP
Body weight (kg)62.45 ± 0.4160.83 ± 0.41≤0.02
BMI (kg/m2)21.69 ± 0.1421.11 ± 0.14≤0.01
Body fat (kg)16.16 ± 0.4916.10 ± 0.49≤0.93
Body cell mass (kg)23.19 ± 0.3623.39 ± 0.36≤0.70
ECM/BCM0.99 ± 0.020.93 ± 0.02≤0.05
Lean body mass (kg)46.12 ± 0.4644.89 ± 0.46≤0.09
Total body water (kg)33.78 ± 0.3332.84 ± 0.33≤0.08
Extracellular water (kg)14.70 ± 0.2014.05 ± 0.20≤0.04
Waist circumference (cm)70.85 ± 1.0369.67 ± 1.03≤0.47
Leptin (ng/ml)12.15 ± 1.1410.85 ± 1.07≤0.43
Insulin (μU/ml)14.00 ± 3.918.60 ± 4.18≤0.36
Glucose (mg/dl)82.11 ± 2.5483.14 ± 2.54≤0.78
ACTH (pg/ml)25.36 ± 5.0816.49 ± 4.73≤0.24
Resting energy expenditure (kcal/day)1,381.74 ± 52.881,339.26 ± 52.88≤0.58
Heart rate (bpm)74.38 ± 5.1273.67 ± 4.78≤0.92
HRV LF/HF1.24 ± 0.351.06 ± 0.32≤0.71
Hunger FEV5.26 ± 0.925.24 ± 0.92≤0.99
Hunger gradient0.27 ± 0.380.59 ± 0.38≤0.56
  • Data are means ± SE (baseline adjusted, as derived from ANCOVA). ECM/BCM, ratio of extracellular mass (ECM) to body cell mass (BCM); HRV LF/HF, heart rate variability (HRV) expressed as the ratio of low-frequency (LF) to high-frequency (HF) power; hunger FEV, hunger score as derived from eating behavior questionnaire FEV (n = 8 for each group).