TABLE 1

A comparison of diabetes risk factors between case and control subjects*

Case subjectsControl subjectsP
n642995
Age (years)54.51 ± 6.8354.40 ± 6.810.74
BMI (kg/m2)30.45 ± 5.6227.22 ± 5.78<0.001
Physical activity (metabolic equivalent hours/week)12.40 ± 15.3114.97 ± 17.980.002
Alcohol intake (g/day)3.68 ± 6.936.07 ± 9.30<0.001
Waist circumference (in)35.48 ± 4.9432.13 ± 4.87<0.001
Ethnicity (Caucasian)94.895.80.39
Current smoker13.912.40.38
Postmenopausal status75.774.10.46
Family history of diabetes (first-degree relatives)47.522.1<0.001
History of hypertension48.628.6<0.001
History of high cholesterol32.424.50.0005
Biomarkers
 Insulin (μU/ml)13.67 ± 9.0810.55 ± 6.22<0.001
 C-peptide (pm/ml)0.99 ± 0.700.61 ± 0.40<0.001
 Proinsulin (fmol/ml)26.51 ± 22.1411.69 ± 8.88<0.001
  • Data are means ± SD or percent.

  • *

    * Case and control subjects were matched for age, fasting status, and race.

  • The biomarker analyses included 432 case and 398 control subjects.