TABLE 1

Baseline characteristics by GAD antibody status

GAD positiveGAD negativeP
n1743,960
Age (years)57.0 ± 0.79956.5 ± 0.1590.524
Male (%)55.857.70.605
BMI (kg/m2)31.4 ± 0.46632.0 ± 0.0910.231
Waist circumference (cm)103.9 ± 1.17105.5 ± 0.2330.178
Waist-to-hip ratio0.942 ± 0.0070.948 ± 0.0010.391
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)8.49 ± 0.1058.39 ± 0.0220.357
HbA1c (%)7.49 ± 0.0707.35 ± 0.0150.066
Fasting plasma insulin (pmol/l)133 ± 9.89150 ± 1.730.045
HOMA-IR ([μU/ml]/[mmol/l])5.36 (4.83–5.95)6.38 (6.25–6.51)0.0005
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)131.2 ± 1.19132.9 ± 0.250.144
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)78.6 ± 0.7179.7 ± 0.140.132
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.26 (1.22–1.31)1.21 (1.20–1.22)0.035
Non-HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.83 (3.68–4.00)3.97 (3.94–4.00)0.091
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.67 (1.52–1.83)1.86 (1.83–1.90)0.011
  • Data are means ± SE or geometric mean (95% CI).