TABLE 1

Type 1 diabetes risk in relation to age, sex, relationship to proband, islet autoantibody number, and combinations in autoantibody- positive relatives: univariate analysis

VariablenType 1 diabetes (n)10-year diabetes risk (% ± SE)HR (95% CI)P
Age0.06
 <15 years933246 ± 71.7 (1.0–2.8)
 >15 years872732 ± 61*
Sex0.6
 Male912834 ± 60.9 (0.5–1.5)
 Female893143 ± 61*
Relation to proband0.26
 Offspring652247 ± 81.7 (0.9–3.4)0.1
 Sibling682237 ± 71.3 (0.7–2.6)0.41
 Parent471531 ± 71*
Autoantibody number0.0001
 One1002225 ± 51*
 Two572559 ± 93.1 (1.7–5.5)<0.001
 Three231269 ± 134.4 (2.1–9.0)<0.001
Autoantibody combinations0.0001
 GADA alone721522 ± 61*
 IAA alone19321 ± 110.8 (0.2–2.7)0.68
 IA2A alone9447 ± 173.0 (1.0–9.2)0.05
 GADA, IAA27852 ± 172.1 (0.9–5.1)0.09
 GADA, IA2A271461 ± 124.0 (1.9–8.4)<0.001
 IAA, IA2A3310013.3 (3.8–47.2)<0.001
 GADA, IAA, IA2231269 ± 134.8 (2.2–10.4)<0.001
  • *

    * Reference cell used in Cox’s proportional hazard model.