TABLE 1

Subject characteristics

Normal reference intervalType 2 diabetes (n = 10)
Control (n = 7)
Before trainingAfter trainingBefore trainingAfter training
Blood glucose (mmol/l)3.5–5.58.2 ± 0.77.9 ± 0.94.7 ± 0.24.7 ± 0.3
HbA1c4.1–6.47.6 ± 0.37.4 ± 0.46.0 ± 0.26.0 ± 0.2
Serum insulin (pmol/l)5–6948 ± 772 ± 1728 ± 539 ± 5
Serum C-peptide (pmol/l)200–700876 ± 961,019 ± 115536 ± 65664 ± 63
Cholesterol (mmol/l)4.3–7.75.6 ± 0.35.4 ± 0.35.6 ± 0.45.4 ± 0.5
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.1–1.81.5 ± 0.11.4 ± 0.11.4 ± 0.11.3 ± 0.1
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)2.7–4.13.4 ± 0.23.3 ± 0.23.7 ± 0.43.6 ± 0.4
VLDL cholesterol (mmol/l)5–10%*0.59 ± 0.040.61 ± 0.070.46 ± 0.050.51 ± 0.11
Triglycerides (mmol/l)0.5–2.21.5 ± 0.31.4 ± 0.10.9 ± 0.11.0 ± 0.3
Aspartate aminotransferases (U/l)≤5031 ± 536 ± 625 ± 126 ± 1
Alkaline phosphatase (U/l)80–275160 ± 14157 ± 9153 ± 16154 ± 12
γ-Glutamyltransferase (U/l)≤90124 ± 48125 ± 4337 ± 1230 ± 7
Pancreatic amylase (U/l)30–190123 ± 27124 ± 2985 ± 781 ± 7
Albumin (g/l)36.6–48.242 ± 142 ± 142 ± 142 ± 1
Carbamide (mmol/l)2.5–7.55.3 ± 0.45.9 ± 0.45.6 ± 0.64.8 ± 0.5
Creatinine (μmol/l)60–13093 ± 494 ± 494 ± 495 ± 3
  • Blood biochemistry is fasting values measured in plasma, except glucose, which is measured in whole blood, and insulin and C-peptide, which were measured in serum.

  • *

    * Of cholesterol;

  • P < 0.05 (type 2 diabetic vs. control subjects at corresponding time).