TABLE 1

Clinical parameters at admission

Without ketosisWith ketosis
P
Type 2 diabetesType 1 diabetesKetosis-prone type 2 diabetes
n8821111
Ketosis0 (0)16 (76.2)111 (100)0.0001*
DKA0 (0)2 (9.5)66 (59.5)0.0001*
ICA, GAD 65 autoantibodies0 (0)21 (100)0 (0)
New-onset diabetes16 (18.2)21 (100)111 (100)
Duration of diabetes (years)6.8 ± 5.200
Precipitating factors48 (54.5)7 (33.3)0 (0)
Ethnic origin0.020*
 Sub-Saharan Africa59 (67.1)16 (76.2)93 (83.8)
 Caribbean Islands29 (32.9)5 (23.8)18 (16.2)
Family history of diabetes64 (72.7)1 (4.8)75 (67.6)<0.0001
Men/women (%)42 (47.7)/46 (52.3)10 (47.6)/11 (52.4)84 (75.7)/27 (24.3)0.0001
Age at onset (years)39.6 ± 11.825.3 ± 9.939.1 ± 9.5<0.0001
BMI before symptoms (kg/m2)29.5 ± 5.523.1 ± 1.528.5 ± 5.1<0.0001
BMI at admission (kg/m2)28.4 ± 6.020.7 ± 1.624.9 ± 4.8<0.0001§
 Obese (BMI >30 kg/m2)29 (32.9)0 (0)20 (20.6)
 Overweight (25 < BMI < 30 kg/m2)29 (32.9)3 (14.3)28 (28.9)
 Lean (BMI <25 kg/m2)30 (34.2)18 (85.7)49 (50.5)0.0033*
Weight loss (kg)2.9 ± 3.66.7 ± 2.29.8 ± 6.10.029
Duration of symptoms (days)62.5 ± 25.227.0 ± 7.223.9 ± 19.50.7
Glucose (mmol/l)19.8 ± 6.620.9 ± 12.630.5 ± 13.10.0001
HbA1c (%)10.5 ± 2.611.6 ± 3.513.4 ± 2.1<0.0001
Bicarbonates (mmol/l)23.9 ± 2.219.4 ± 6.515.3 ± 6.30.4
Arterial pH7.36 ± 0.47.28 ± 0.77.19 ± 0.80.09
Initial treatment
 Insulin52 (59.1)21 (100)111 (100)
 OHA17 (19.3)0%0%
  • Data are patient number (%) or means±SD. Normal HbA1c is <6%.

  • *

    * Ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes vs. type 1 diabetes comparing lean vs. overweight and obese (χ2);

  • overall three-group comparison (χ2);

  • ketosis-prone diabetes vs. type 1 diabetes (Wilcoxon rank-sum test);

  • §

    § overall three-group comparison (Kruskal-Wallis test).