TABLE 1

Comparison of diabetes risk factors between case and control subjects at baseline*

CaseControlP
n737785
Age (years)56.3 ± 6.956.2 ± 6.90.69
BMI (kg/m2)30.3 ± 5.626.2 ± 6.1<0.001
Physical activity (METs/week)12.3 ± 15.215.6 ± 27.20.004
Alcohol consumption (g/day)3.7 ± 7.16.5 ± 9.0<0.001
Waist circumference (in)35.3 ± 4.931.3 ± 4.9<0.001
Diet score7.8 ± 2.78.2 ± 2.7<0.001
Current smoking (%)14.113.30.62
Postmenopausal status (%)36.042.30.01
Current postmenopausal hormone use (%)39.836.00.35
Family history of diabetes in first-degree relative (%)46.821.0<0.001
Race (Caucasian) (%)94.894.30.68
Aspirin use ≥1/week25.120.90.05
Biomarkers (median values)
 TNF-αR2 (pg/ml)2,646.52,383.8<0.001
 CRP (mg/dl)0.360.16<0.001
 IL-6 (pg/ml)2.381.84<0.001
 E-selectin (pg/ml)61.2545.37<0.001
 Fasting insulin (uU/ml)§11.968.27<0.001
  • Data are means ± SE unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * Case and control subjects were matched on age, fasting status, and race.

  • MET, metabolic equivalent; 1 MET hour is equivalent to energy expended by sting quietly for 1 h.

  • Intakes for trans fat, cereal fiber, glycemic load, and P-to-S (polyunsaturated fat-to-saturated fat) ratio were categorized into quintiles and for each participant, the quintile value for each nutrient (a higher quintile score represents a lower risk) was summed and the sum was recategorized into quintiles.

  • §

    § A total of 432 case and 398 control subjects had fasting insulin measurement.