TABLE 1

Characteristics of the study cohort

Total populationSubjects without metabolic syndromeSubjects with metabolic syndromeP
n3,0331,8861,147
Age (years)74 ± 2.974 ± 2.974 ± 2.8NS
Male (%)485242<0.0001
African American (%)424241NS
BMI (kg/m2)27 ± 4.927 ± 4.729 ± 4.8<0.0001
Waist circumference (cm)100 ± 1398 ± 13102 ± 12<0.0001
High blood pressure (%)393545<0.0001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)136 ± 21134 ± 21139 ± 21<0.0001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)71 ± 1271 ± 1272 ± 11NS
Diabetes (%)19738<0.0001
Glucose intolerance (%)*24949<0.0001
Fasting glucose (mmol/l)5.83 ± 1.945.33 ± 1.286.66 ± 2.55<0.0001
Fasting insulin (units/ml)8.55 ± 7.527.31 ± 5.9910.90 ± 9.34<0.0001
HbA1c (%)6.37 ± 1.136.12 ± 0.836.78 ± 1.40<0.0001
Lipid-lowering drugs (%)151319<0.0001
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)5.25 ± 1.015.22 ± 0.0965.28 ± 1.06NS
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.15 ± 0.913.15 ± 0.883.13 ± 0.93NS
Low HDL cholesterol (%)291062<0.0001
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.40 ± 0.441.53 ± 0.441.19 ± 0.36<0.0001
High triglycerides (%)309.266<0.0001
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.56 ± 0.931.22 ± 0.482.14 ± 1.19<0.0001
Triglyceride-to-HDL molar ratio1.31 ± 1.220.88 ± 0.502.01 ± 1.65<0.0001
Smoking: former/current (%)46/1046/1146/9.1NS
Average pack-years among smokers19 ± 2819 ± 2720 ± 21NS
OxLDL (mg/dl)1.32 ± 0.741.23 ± 0.671.45 ± 0.82<0.0001
OxLDL (% of LDL)1.09 ± 0.531.01 ± 0.461.21 ± 0.59<0.0001
  • Data are means ± SD. Subjects without and with the metabolic syndrome were compared with the Kruskal-Wallis or χ2 test.

  • *

    * Glucose intolerance determined according to American Diabetes Association criteria.