TABLE 4

Characteristics of diabetic participants by race/ethnicity and GAD AA positivity, NHANES III participants (n = 1,064)*

Non-Hispanic whites
Non-Hispanic blacks
Mexican Americans
GAD65 AA+GAD65 AAGAD65 AA+GAD65 AAGAD65 AA+GAD65 AA
n27402112844336
Sex (% men)3752.236.440.15044.4
Age (years)65 ± 1169 ± 1268 ± 862 ± 1253 ± 861 ± 11
BMI (kg/m2)27.2 ± 5.929.4 ± 5.725.1 ± 4.531.1 ± 6.528.1 ± 1.929.7 ± 5.7
Fasting glucose (mmol/l)8.2 (6.6–14.5)8.0 (6.4–11.4)15.6 (8.5–19.4)8.4 (6.4–12.9)8.2 (6.5–12.3)8.4 (6.2–13.4)
2-h glucose (mmol/l)16.4 (15.4–21.7)15.8 (11.4–20.2)18.9 (6.2–31.5)15.2 (10.5–20.5)18.4 (9.8–22.8)18.2 (13.3–22.9)
Fasting insulin (pmol/l)21.9 (9.8–47.6)17.6 (11.4–30.5)24.6 (8.0–62.0)19.7 (11.3–33.2)10.8 (7.7–19.4)16.0 (10.8–25.9)
HbA1c (%)8.3 (6.2–9.1)6.9 (6.0–8.3)9.4 (7.6–10.7)7.5 (6.2–9.4)7.7 (5.5–10.5)7.7 (6.4–9.5)
C-peptide (pmol/ml)0.74 (0.11–1.15)1.21 (0.84–1.71)0.47 (0.02–0.78)0.92 (0.60–1.29)0.73 (0.63–0.80)1.12 (0.72–1.52)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)134 ± 20141 ± 19141 ± 19141 ± 19134 ± 23141 ± 23
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)73 ± 1273 ± 1076 ± 877 ± 1181 ± 775 ± 11
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)2.77 (2.33–3.31)3.59 (2.97–4.22)3.41 (3.13–3.70)3.59 (3.03–4.37)3.15 (2.82–3.47)3.41 (2.84–4.01)
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.24 (0.83–1.66)1.06 (0.88–1.32)1.11 (0.85–1.81)1.24 (1.03–1.55)1.09 (1.01–1.19)1.16 (0.98–1.37)
Triglycerides (mmol/l)3.85 (2.53–7.71)4.86 (3.44–7.37)3.00 (1.86–4.58)3.75 (2.48–5.25)4.71 (2.66–5.35)4.60 (3.44–7.06)
Physician-diagnosed diabetes (n = 887)§
n24320112343295
 Age at diabetes diagnosis (years)55 ± 1358 ± 1352 ± 1651 ± 1351 ± 851 ± 12
 Diabetes duration (years)11.1 ± 10.511.1 ± 9.816.2 ± 11.511.5 ± 10.53.7 ± 2.110.7 ± 9.4
 Use of any diabetes medication (%)79.274.790.977.466.774.9
 Insulin use (%)5028.463.639.733.323.4
 OHGA use (%)29.249.154.642.333.356.3
  • *

    * Data are percentage, mean ± SD, or median (interquartile range) for nonnormal variables. Diabetes status based on self-reported history of diabetes, diabetes medication use, or fasting ADA criteria.

  • P < 0.05, GAD65 AA+ vs. GAD65 AA.

  • Excludes insulin users, resulting in insulin data on 15 GAD65 AA+ and 310 GAD65 AA non-Hispanic whites, 4 GAD65 AA+ and 191 GAD65 AA non-Hispanic blacks, 3 GAD65 AA+ and 267 GAD65 AA Mexican Americans.

  • §

    § Diabetes status based on positive history of diabetes only (self-reported history of diabetes and current diabetes treatment).