TABLE 1

Characteristics of nondiabetic subjects according to fasting and 2-h glucose tolerance status

NFG/NGT1NFG/IGT2IFG/NGT3IFG/IGT4P
1 vs. 21 vs. 31 vs. 42 vs. 32 vs. 43 vs. 4
Clinical and metabolic data
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 Sex (%, M/F)44/5637/6364/3641/59
 Ethnicity (%) (NHW, AA, HIS)40/26/3442/21/3746/27/2731/41/27
 Hypertension (yes/no)25/7541/5944/5643/57
 Smoking (never/past/current)45/39/1646/38/1642/39/1948/36/16
 Age (years)53.7 ± 0.357.0 ± 0.556.7 ± 1.155.9 ± 0.8<0.00010.0070.0130.80.30.5
 BMI (kg/m2)27.3 ± 0.229.3 ± 0.328.6 ± 0.733.4 ± 0.5<0.00010.08<0.00010.4<0.0001<0.0001
 Waist (cm)87.6 ± 0.592.8 ± 0.893.1 ± 1.6101.0 ± 1.2<0.00010.001<0.00010.8<0.0001<0.0001
 Fasting glucose (mg/dl)93.6 ± 0.398.8 ± 0.4114.9 ± 0.9116.0 ± 0.7<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001<0.00010.4
 2-h glucose (mg/dl)104.5 ± 0.8161.9 ± 1.2113.6 ± 2.6168.1 ± 2.0<0.00010.0007<0.0001<0.00010.0079<0.0001
 Fasting insulin (pmol/l)67.4 ± 1.984.4 ± 3.991.9 ± 8.9118.5 ± 9.3<0.00010.0002<0.00010.3<0.00010.01
 2-h insulin (pmol/l)336.5 ± 14.1645.8 ± 40.4444.4 ± 71.1677.6 ± 71.0<0.0001<0.01<0.00010.0010.60.001
 Proinsulin/intact (pmol/l)23.7 ± 0.734.4 ± 1.842.0 ± 4.549.2 ± 4.0<0.0001<0.0001<0.00010.03<0.00010.13
 Proinsulin/split (pmol/l)9.3 ± 1.211.9 ± 3.013.4 ± 8.367.1 ± 6.9<0.0001<0.0001<0.00010.03<0.00010.2
 PI/I ratio0.35 ± 0.010.40 ± 0.020.45 ± 0.050.42 ± 0.030.0030.0040.0150.20.70.4
Si × 10−4 (min−1 · μU−1 · ml−1)3.19 ± 0.052.10 ± 0.042.59 ± 0.131.94 ± 0.06<0.00010.003<0.00010.0050.20.0008
 AIR (pmol/l)333.9 ± 13.2273.1 ± 18.1215.9 ± 30.0208.4 ± 22.90.0007<0.0001<0.00010.040.0040.8
 HOMA-IR56.6 ± 2.775.6 ± 4.396.4 ± 8.9132.7 ± 6.80.0002<0.0001<0.00010.036<0.00010.0012
Cardiovascular risk data
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 Triglycerides (mg/dl)104.4 ± 2.6137.7 ± 5.5108.4 ± 8.9131.8 ± 8.2<0.00010.6<0.00010.00250.50.029
 Cholesterol (mg/dl)209.7 ± 1.6216.9 ± 2.6208.7 ± 5.4214.2 ± 4.10.0210.90.30.170.60.4
 LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)139.8 ± 1.4143.0 ± 2.2142.1 ± 4.5147.1 ± 3.50.20.60.0530.90.30.4
 HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)48.0 ± 0.646.3 ± 0.945.0 ± 2.044.2 ± 1.50.130.140.0160.50.20.7
 LDL size (Å)261.5 ± 0.4259.1 ± 0.6260.6 ± 1.3260.8 ± 1.00.00110.50.50.30.150.9
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)118.3 ± 0.6124.0 ± 1.0127.1 ± 2.1126.8 ± 1.6<0.0001<0.0001<0.00010.180.130.9
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)76.7 ± 0.377.8 ± 0.579.7 ± 1.178.7 ± 0.80.090.00910.0240.110.30.5
 CRP (mg/l)1.50 ± 0.12.49 ± 0.31.49 ± 0.53.08 ± 0.7<0.00010.9<0.00010.00150.11<0.0001
 Fibrinogen (mg/dl)265.8 ± 2.2281.6 ± 3.8268.8 ± 7.4286.4 ± 6.10.00020.70.00080.130.50.06
 PAI-1 (ng/ml)13.9 ± 0.618.6 ± 1.319.4 ± 2.824.2 ± 2.6<0.00010.003<0.00010.70.0070.10
  • Data are means ± SE. Unadjusted P values are for overall comparisons for categorical variables (χ2) and for pairwise comparisons for continuous variables (ANOVA). AA, African Americans; NHW, non-Hispanic whites; HIS, Hispanics.