TABLE 2

Plasma hormone, substrate, and “adipokine” levels after 21 days of placebo or pioglitazone therapy

Placebo group
Pioglitazone group
Time180–240300–360180–240300–360
 Insulin (μU/ml)60.39 ± 7.32395.7 ± 32.7425.58 ± 6.99389.3 ± 35.18
 C-peptide (nmol/ml)0.10 ± 0.010.06 ± 0.010.12 ± 0.010.06 ± 0.01
 Lactate (mmol/l)1.26 ± 0.101.40 ± 0.101.11 ± 0.081.49 ± 0.14
 Glycerol (μmol/l)83.53 ± 9.7460.75 ± 6.1791.22 ± 23.7358.32 ± 11.23
Time03600360
 Adiponectin (μg/ml)6.1 ± 0.74.9 ± 0.712.4 ± 1.7*12.3 ± 1.7
 Leptin (ng/ml)14.1 ± 5.613.8 ± 5.211.7 ± 4.9*11.9 ± 4.9
 IL-6 (pg/ml)62.3 ± 15.147.0 ± 10.153.4 ± 8.167.1 ± 14.3
 TNF-α (pg/ml)256.9 ± 51.4189.2 ± 35.4216 ± 49.9*227.9 ± 49.9
 TGF-β (pg/ml)0.30 ± 0.020.15 ± 0.010.27 ± 0.030.16 ± 0.01
  • Data are means ± SE.

  • *

    * P ≤ 0.05 for placebo vs. pioglitazone.