TABLE 3

Changes in gene expression after 21 days of pioglitazone therapy

Fold change95% CI
Skeletal muscle P+ vs. P−
 ACC21.340.38–2.29
 CD361.330.99–1.67
 CPT1B1.230.92–1.54
 UCP-30.970.80–1.13
 SCD5.54*2.82–8.27
Adipose tissue P+ vs. P−
 Adiponectin1.72*1.18–2.21
 ACC14.250.44–8.05
 FAS1.320.94–1.72
 Glycerol kinase0.930.70–1.16
 IL-61.140.68–1.60
 Leptin0.840.22–1.07
 Resistin0.53*0.19–0.86
 TGF-β1.370.37–1.75
 TNF-α0.830.66–1.01
  • Fold change in gene expression of uncoupling protein-3 (UCP-3), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (CPT-1B), fatty acid synthase (FAS), acetyl CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2), stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD), and CD36 in mRNA obtained from pairs of skeletal muscle were analyzed by RT-PCR. Fold change in gene expression of adiponectin, leptin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), glycerol kinase, resistin, acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC1), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) in mRNA obtained from pairs of subcutaneous (SC) adipose tissue biopsies performed after 345 min of the stepped insulin clamp were also analyzed by RT-PCR.

  • *

    * P < 0.05. P+, pioglitazone; P−, placebo.