TABLE 1

Subject characteristics

Middle-aged control subjectsObese nondiabetic subjectsType 2 diabetic subjectsYoung control subjectsType 1 diabetic subjects
n1616121510
Men/women8/89/76/68/76/4
Age (years)45.2 ± 5.445.7 ± 3.354.2 ± 2.726.6 ± 1.432.8 ± 2.4
BMI (kg/m2)23 ± 0.4332.9 ± 0.78*31.9 ± 1.4*23.2 ± 0.4923.5 ± 0.86
Basal
    Glucose (mmol/l)0.88 ± 0.020.96 ± 0.032.07 ± 0.46*0.9 ± 0.022.38 ± 0.17*
    Insulin (pmol/l)5.75 ± 0.3912.5 ± 1.4*12.83 ± 1.667.03 ± 0.55
    Nonesterified fatty acids (μmol/l)464.7 ± 62553.4 ± 39.7701.7 ± 49.5§493.1 ± 65.6570.6 ± 101.1
    Trigycerides (mmol/l)0.61 ± 0.071.31 ± 0.212.25 ± 0.48*0.66 ± 0.070.43 ± 0.02
    Glucose disposal rate (mg · kg−1 · min−1)2.16 ± 0.111.7 ± 0.07§2.23 ± 0.152.06 ± 0.06ND
    Glucose oxidation rate (mg · kg−1 · min−1)1.44 ± 0.171.15 ± 0.141.24 ± 0.151.39 ± 0.181.49 ± 0.15
Clamp study
    Glucose (mmol/l)0.79 ± 0.040.94 ± 0.030.95 ± 0.030.86 ± 0.051.02 ± 0.03
    Insulin (pmol/l)151.9 ± 13.2160 ± 18.1193.5 ± 18.9191.6 ± 24
    Glucose disposal rate (mg · kg−1 · min−1)10.47 ± 0.595.58 ± 0.5*3.4 ± 0.59*10.08 ± 1.128.13 ± 0.91
    Glucose oxidation rate (mg · kg−1 · min−1)3.41 ± 0.22.29 ± 0.132.16 ± 0.19§3.04 ± 0.183.2 ± 0.23
    Nonoxidative glucose disposal rate (mg · kg−1 · min−1)7.58 ± 0.573.18 ± 0.441.84 ± 0.547.03 ± 1.144.93 ± 0.76
    Nonesterified fatty acid (μmol/l)39.56 ± 7.463.7 ± 10.5§143.5 ± 33.648.2 ± 10.451.2 ± 5.6
  • Data are means ± SE.

  • §

    § P < 0.01,

  • P < 0.001,

  • *

    * P < 0.0001 vs. respective control subjects;

  • P < 0.05,

  • P < 0.01 for type 2 diabetic vs. obese nondiabetic subjects. ND, not determined.