TABLE 1

Baseline demographic, lifestyle, and clinical characteristics of the study participants by diabetes status at follow-up

CharacteristicSubjects with incident type 2 diabetes during follow-upSubjects without incident type 2 diabetes during follow-upP value*
Demographic
    n (women/men)222/305809/889
    Age (years)56.1 ± 0.451.7 ± 0.3<0.001
    Education <12 years (%)82.475.10.039
Lifestyle
    Smoking status (%)0.285
Current smoker26.924.1
Former smoker31.727.8
Never smoker41.448.1
    Frequency of exercise (%)0.011
Active30.240.6
Inactive69.859.4
    Alcohol consumption0.473
0 g/day33.429.0
>0–39.9/19.9 g/day39.744.1
≥ 40/20 g/day26.926.9
Current HRT8.211.70.461
Current use of oral contraceptives§7.715.30.420
Clinical
    BMI (kg/m2)30.2 ± 0.226.7 ± 0.1<0.001
    WHR0.924 ± 0.0040.865 ± 0.003<0.001
    History of actual hypertension67.639.7<0.001
    History of MI5.12.00.033
    Total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio5.6 ± 0.14.5 ± 0.04<0.001
    Parental history of diabetes0.002
Positive28.319.8
Unknown26.820.5
Negative45.059.7
    CRP (mg/l)2.6 (1.0)1.4 (1.0)<0.001
    IL-6 (pg/ml)3.0 (1.0)2.0 (1.0)<0.001
    IL-18 (pg/ml)188.7 (1.0)159.4 (1.0)<0.001
    Survey0.039
S136.230.9
S240.836.4
S323.032.8
  • Data are weighted percentages for categorical variables, weighted means ± SE for normally distributed continuous variables, and weighted geometric means (antilog of SEs of log means) for skewed continuous variables.

  • *

    * t test for continuous variables and χ2 test for categorical variables.

  • Men, 0, >0–39.9 g/day, ≥ 40 g/day; women, 0, >0–19.9 g/day, ≥ 20 g/day.

  • Only for women aged ≥50 years (n = 606) with no current use of oral contraceptives.

  • §

    § Only for women aged <50 years (n = 413) with no current HRT.

  • Only measured in participants of surveys 2 and 3 (cases: n = 333; noncases: n = 1,028). Weights: cases = 1; noncases = 1/sampling fraction with sampling fraction = subcohort/full cohort without cases for each sex and survey. HRT, hormone replacement therapy.