TABLE 2

Univariate analysis of risk factors versus retinopathy and nephropathy outcome

CharacteristicsThree or more–step ETDRS progression or scatter laser therapy from DCCT close out through EDIC study year 10Development of microalbuminuria or worse from DCCT close out through EDIC study year 9–10
EventNoneventP valueEventNoneventP value
n6711734151
Demographics
    Age at EDIC study baseline34.4 ± 6.834.0 ± 6.50.777734.1 ± 6.334.6 ± 6.60.5883
    Women (%)55.245.30.195055.947.70.3875
Diabetes duration at EDIC study baseline (years)11.3 ± 4.411.0 ± 5.00.367910.5 ± 4.011.0 ± 4.80.7269
DCCT treatment group
    Intensive (%)41.865.00.002352.958.30.5698
Glycemic control
    DCCT mean A1C (%)9.0 ± 1.77.6 ± 1.2<0.00018.8 ± 1.67.8 ± 1.40.0005
    EDIC study mean A1C up to EDIC study year 10 (%)8.8 ± 1.47.7 ± 0.9<0.0001
    EDIC study mean A1C up to EDIC study year 9–10 (%)9.2 ± 1.37.8 ± 1.1<0.0001
Medical at EDIC baseline
    Mean blood pressure (mmHg)90.7 ± 9.388.1 ± 8.00.117492.6 ± 8.488.0 ± 8.20.0089
    Hypertension ever (%)14.97.70.120825.37.30.0048
    Triglycerides (mmol) (now in mg/dl)81.0 ± 44.076.6 ± 43.30.688286.6 ± 45.473.9 ± 39.10.1165
    HDL cholesterol (mmol) (now in mg/dl)53.0 ± 14.251.2 ± 12.20.467051.8 ± 12.451.6 ± 12.90.9218
    LDL cholesterol (mmol) (now in mg/dl)112 ± 29108 ± 290.3577116 ± 30108 ± 280.0856
    Overweight (%)35.835.00.915438.237.10.9004
    Smoker at DCCT close out (%)26.915.40.058923.517.20.3907
Retinopathy at EDIC study baseline
    No retinopathy (10/10) (%)25.430.817.733.1
    Microaneurisms only <(20/20) (%)29.941.038.239.1
    Mild to moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy or worse (35/<35+) (%)44.828.20.071144.127.80.1007
Renal at EDIC baseline
    Albuminuria (mg/24 h)44.7 ± 16611.7 ± 21.10.000213.6 ± 9.48.3 ± 5.10.0014
    AER ≥40 (%)17.94.30.0023
Neuropathy at EDIC baseline (%)16.44.30.005214.78.70.2845
Skin collagens at EDIC study baseline (pmol/mg collagen)
    Furosine924 ± 253669 ± 172<0.0001878 ± 242717 ± 2050.0001
    CML607 ± 134501 (120)<0.0001596 ± 126514 ± 1290.0007
    Pentosidine29.0 ± 8.224.3 ± 6.9<0.00018.624.7 ± 6.80.0003
    Fluorescence197 ± 40176 ± 370.0002201 ± 45181 ± 500.0033
    Acid-soluble collagen (%)0.6 ± 0.40.5 ± 0.30.13250.6 ± 0.40.6 ± 0.30.1599
    Pepsin-soluble collagen (%)5.9 ± 3.97.3 ± 3.0<0.00016.0 ± 2.87.1 ± 3.40.0187
  • Data are means ± SD or percent, unless otherwise indicated. ETDRS, Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Scale. Values in bold indicate P < 0.05.