TABLE 1

Physical characteristics and biochemical measurements of subjects

WomenMen
n888–943*217–238*
Age (years)42.93 ± 9.9839.47 ± 12.65
Height (cm)162.0 ± 5.8174.83 ± 8.82
Weight (kg)68.60 ± 13.1585.77 ± 16.48
BMI (kg/m2)26.14 ± 4.8728.83 ± 16.37
Hip (cm)101.9 ± 10.9101.5 ± 9.5
Waist (cm)89.6 ± 13.398.2 ± 12.5
Hip-to-waist ratio0.88 ± 0.070.97 ± 0.06
Body fat percentage37.19 ± 7.0625.71 ± 7.51
Trunk fat percentage38.27 ± 8.1530.46 ± 8.58
Serum glucose (mmol/l)4.93 ± 0.505.13 ± 0.56
Serum insulin (pmol/l)68.75 ± 44.5979.7 ± 52.2
Serum calcium (mmol/l)2.33 ± 0.122.36 ± 0.12
Serum calcium-C (mmol/l)§2.31 ± 0.122.31 ± 0.12
Serum phosphorus (mmol/l)1.20 ± 0.181.75 ± 9.21
Serum magnesium (mmol/l)0.98 ± 3.090.89 ± 0.09
Insulin resistance2.14 ± 1.492.66 ± 1.94
β-Cell function151.0 ± 173.3136.3 ± 140.2
  • Data are means ± SD.

  • * Range of subjects;

  • P value <0.001;

  • P value <0.05 in the comparison between men and women using Student’s t test;

  • § calcium-C means total serum calcium corrected by albumin [Ca + 0.1 × (40 − albumin)/6];

  • insulin resistance and β-cell function were estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA).