TABLE 1

Baseline characteristics of participants in the intervention and control groups

InterventionControl
n249238
Age (years)55.8 ± 7.255.0 ± 6.9
Sex (male/female)87/16275/163
Smokers (%)811
Family history of diabetes (%)6761
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)140 ± 18136 ± 18
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)86 ± 986 ± 10
Antihypertensive drug treatment (%)2831
BMI (kg/m2)31.3 ± 4.531.2 ± 4.6
Serum total cholesterol (mmol/l)5.6 ± 1.05.6 ± 0.9
Serum HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.2 ± 0.31.2 ± 0.3
Serum triglycerides (mmol/l)1.53 (1.15–2.00)1.60 (1.20–2.10)
Cholesterol-lowering medication (%)57
OGTT
    Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)6.1 ± 0.86.2 ± 0.7
    2-h plasma glucose (mmol/l)8.7 (7.9–9.8)8.8 (7.9–10.0)
    Fasting serum insulin (pmol/l)90 (69–125)97 (69–125)
    2-h serum insulin (pmol/l)556 (340–837)542 (403–813)
Dietary intake
    Energy (kcal)1,695 (1,431–2,023)1,683 (1,363–2,054)
    Total fat, energy adjusted (g)72 (63–79)73 (66–81)
    Saturated fat, energy adjusted (g)32.0 (27.0–36.9)33.6 (28.9–37.9)
    Fiber, energy adjusted (g)19.4 (15.7–23.8)19.0 (15.2–23.4)
LTPA (h/week)†
    Total5.8 (3.3–9.2)5.5 (2.8–9.8)
    Moderate and vigorous2.6 (1.1–4.9)2.8 (1.1–5.8)
    Low intensity2.2 (0.7–4.5)1.9 (0.5–4.7)
    Strenuous, structured0.1 (0.0–0.8)0.2 (0.0–0.8)
    Nonstrenuous, structured0.3 (0.0–1.1)0.2 (0.0–0.7)
    Walking for exercise1.1 (0.3–2.7)0.9 (0.2–2.5)
Casual or mildly exertive ( %)7176
Moderately or very strenuous (%)2924
    Lifestyle1.9 (0.4–4.0)1.8 (0.4–4.9)
    Commuting on foot or by bicycle0.0 (0.0–0.5)0.0 (0.0–0.5)
  • Data are means ± SD, medians (interquartile ranges), or percent and are given for participants who provided sufficient information on LTPA. Total LTPA is the sum of moderate and vigorous plus low-intensity LTPA or the sum of strenuous, structured LTPA other than walking; nonstrenuous, structured LTPA other than walking; walking for exercise; lifestyle LTPA; and commuting LTPA. Moderate and vigorous LTPA includes walking at a moderate or very strenuous intensity, bicycling, swimming, resistance training, skiing, jogging, ball games, and lifestyle activities such as chopping wood or clearing brush. Low-intensity LTPA includes casual or mildly exertive walking, bicycling at a leisurely intensity, gardening and yard work, and picking berries and mushrooms. Strenuous, structured LTPA other than walking includes bicycling, swimming, skiing, jogging, resistance training, ball games, and rowing practiced at a moderate or high subjective intensity; nonstrenuous, structured LTPAs are those same activities practiced at lower intensities. Walking for exercise was categorized separately. Lifestyle LTPA includes gardening, yard work, shoveling snow, picking berries, hobbies and crafts, hunting, fishing, and chopping wood. Commuting LTPA was defined as walking or cycling to and from work.