TABLE 1

Baseline characteristics of the study participants (n = 744)

VariablesControl subjectsCase subjectsP
n496248
Sex (% men)6262NS*
Age (years)65 ± 366 ± 4NS*
BMI (kg/m2)26 ± 329 ± 4<0.001
Waist circumference (cm)93 ± 13101 ± 14<0.001
Duration of diabetes (years)13 ± 314 ± 3NS
Oral hypoglycemic agents (%)61.963.3NS
Insulin treatment only (%)1214NS
Current smokers (%)2022NS
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)124 ± 13131 ± 15<0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)79 ± 1283 ± 10<0.001
A1C (%)6.9 ± 0.87.2 ± 0.90.059
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.24 ± 0.61.62 ± 0.9<0.001
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.39 ± 0.31.25 ± 0.4<0.001
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.29 ± 0.43.27 ± 0.5NS
AST (units/l)20 ± 1026 ± 12<0.01
ALT (units/l)23 ± 1233 ± 14<0.001
GGT (units/l)27 ± 1438 ± 16<0.001
Microalbuminuria (%)2023NS
ATP III–defined metabolic syndrome (%)5273<0.001
NAFLD (%)5694<0.001
  • Data are the means ± SD, unless otherwise indicated. Differences were assessed by the unpaired t test (for normally distributed variables) and by the χ2 test (for categorical variables).

  • *

    * Matched variables.