TABLE 1

Cytokine elaborations monitoring regulatory and effector T-cell function

Treg-to-Teff ratio24 h
48 h
120 h
ControlType 1 diabetesControlType 1 diabetesControlType 1 diabetes
GM-CSF1 to 035.14 ± 29.2140.75 ± 50.6548.84 ± 33.9869.28 ± 84.2366.73 ± 41.4198.43 ± 121.57
1 to 137.78 ± 26.1642.84 ± 44.5284.89 ± 31.9183.99 ± 78.56194.10 ± 101.98138.90 ± 108.04
1/2 to 125.31 ± 17.7539.95 ± 49.9271.02 ± 22.7563.13 ± 64.33200.27 ± 122.95122.81 ± 120.51
0 to 19.19 ± 1.7911.31 ± 8.5346.48 ± 34.621.45 ± 10.88319.55 ± 190.8666.60 ± 35.46*
IFN-γ1 to 040.18 ± 25.47ND97.26 ± 42.01ND68.28 ± 33.5822.45 ± 23.55
1 to 1107.84 ± 59.3312.86 ± 28.76*197.86 ± 121.4485.66 ± 102.7343.28 ± 162.32261.50 ± 335.51
1/2 to 1116.01 ± 47.77ND247.49 ± 134.4156.94 ± 66.84476.87 ± 265.31157.82 ± 158.32
0 to 192.27 ± 35.97ND244.30 ± 174.0033.2 ± 53.31757.61 ± 381.46127.01 ± 118.18*
IL-101 to 04.55 ± 3.615.55 ± 5.637.35 ± 6.706.18 ± 6.7517.14 ± 16.686.09 ± 6.72
1 to 15.13 ± 4.345.89 ± 5.2312.66 ± 10.037.29 ± 6.4719.43 ± 15.557.48 ± 7.00
1/2 to 12.42 ± 2.635.64 ± 4.9310.84 ± 11.036.77 ± 6.1020.03 ± 18.877.82 ± 8.01
0 to 1ND2.38 ± 0.606.30 ± 7.613.09 ± 2.3820.52 ± 17.934.02 ± 3.03
IL-1β1 to 073.2 ± 79.47268.04 ± 494.8756.69 ± 66.57212.48 ± 389.2422.16 ± 27.22101.41 ± 193.56
1 to 185.89 ± 95.90297.73 ± 538.5864.40 ± 74.75196.73 ± 357.2623.71 ± 26.2788.10 ± 161.87
1/2 to 154.05 ± 69.41216.42 ± 393.4238.76 ± 52.13123.32 ± 214.8415.87 ± 20.5869.66 ± 130.27
0 to 13.06 ± 3.6920.95 ± 40.991.83 ± 2.3414.36 ± 26.031.06 ± 1.288.04 ± 12.68
IL-21 to 037.00 ± 17.424.09 ± 6.19*33.70 ± 16.779.15 ± 14.447.76 ± 2.44ND
1 to 177.32 ± 42.2523.18 ± 35.9376.47 ± 45.3523.96 ± 30.2510.62 ± 6.33ND
1/2 to 172.71 ± 41.5514.25 ± 19.6576.96 ± 45.1315.10 ± 17.379.01 ± 1.93ND
0 to 157.87 ± 29.747.85 ± 11.4971.48 ± 39.907.42 ± 10.25*12.59 ± 5.831.34 ± 2.99*
IL-41 to 016.94 ± 1.17ND17.79 ± 2.30ND9.82 ± 1.99ND
1 to 117.94 ± 2.09ND21.53 ± 7.03ND12.55 ± 4.12ND
1/2 to 117.46 ± 1.78ND21.55 ± 5.31ND12.06 ± 3.36ND
0 to 116.62 ± 1.24ND20.20 ± 3.10ND13.73 ± 4.32ND
IL-61 to 0554.82 ± 399.42546.20 ± 558.80604.70 ± 478.87636.99 ± 640.94556.07 ± 484.87676.42 ± 779.87
1 to 1568.93 ± 389.64580.77 ± 515.13630.01 ± 468.02588.81 ± 547.11580.88 ± 463.23654.74 ± 695.63
1/2 to 1370.04 ± 287.4548.08 ± 611.06435.21 ± 369.68522.26 ± 559.58319.55 ± 378.46628.53 ± 842.72
0 to 168.36 ± 34.91173.09 ± 183.7772.90 ± 36.33182.10 ± 184.3565.52 ± 34.94191.56 ± 221.22
TNF-α1 to 0335.91 ± 220.69233.85 ± 268.28184.03 ± 134.90113.04 ± 123.2278.80 ± 88.7264.59 ± 112.71
1 to 1375.45 ± 176.35240.45 ± 211.47270.34 ± 61.80127.76 ± 93.14130.87 ± 50.4675.33 ± 104.31
1/2 to 1288.04 ± 135.38200.50 ± 186.64250.15 ± 53.81112.71 ± 104.08125.48 ± 42.2875.69 ± 113.62
0 to 1116.87 ± 34.1168.59 ± 58.36170.03 ± 128.3958.33 ± 45.73136.88 ± 81.8033.53 ± 26.03
TGF-β1 to 02,443.54 ± 1,276.65672.64 ± 812.22
1 to 11,182.04 ± 1,838.65798.82 ± 1,076.81
1/2 to 1853.12 ± 999.01815.04 ± 708.84
0 to 11,450.45 ± 1,380.20594.47 ± 191.30
  • Supernatants were collected from in vitro suppression assays in subjects with type 1 diabetes or healthy control subjects at 24, 48, and 120 h and at various ratios of regulatory T- to effector T-cells.

  • *

    * P < 0.01;

  • P < 0.05; ND, not detected.