TABLE 2

Summary of clinical trials of thiazolidinediones

StudyInterventionPatientsFollow up/ treatment durationBlood glucose outcomeLipid outcome
Troglitazone
    Troglitazone Study Group: Kumar et al. (32)Troglitazone 200/400/600/800 mg/day vs. placebo330 patients with type 2 diabetes12 weeks of treatment↓A1C (mean 7.0–7.4 vs. 8.0%, P = 0.055 to <0.001), ↓FPG (360–426 vs. 499 mg/dl, P < 0.001), ↓fasting insulin, ↑insulin sensitivity (HOMA 34.3–42.8 vs. 29.9%, P < 0.05)↓Nonesterified Fas, ↓triglycerides, ↑HDL cholesterol (for 600 and 800 mg/day)
    TRIPOD: Buchanan et al. (33)Troglitazone 400 mg/day vs. placebo266 women with previous gestational diabetes30 months (median follow-up)↓Diabetes incidence rates (P < 0.01), ↑preservation of pancreatic β-cell function
Pioglitazone
    Miyazaki et al. (34)Pioglitazone 45 mg/day vs. placebo23 patients with type 2 diabetes16 weeks of treatment↓A1C (−1.7%, P < 0.001), ↓FPG (−49 mg/dl, P < 0.01), no change in C-peptide levels↓FFA (change from baseline −168 vs. 13 μEq/l, P = 0.02), ↓triglyceride (change from baseline −33 vs. 1 mg/dl, P = 0.047)
    Pioglitazone 026 Study: Rosenblatt et al. (35)Pioglitazone 30 mg/day vs. placebo197 patients with type 2 diabetes16 weeks of treatment↓A1C (−1.4%, P = 0.001), ↓FPG (−57.5 mg/dl, P = 0.001), ↓C-peptide (−0.08 nmol/l, P = 0.001), ↓fasting insulin (−11.9 pmol/l, P = 0.001), ↓insulin resistance (HOMA −12.4%, P < 0.001), ↑β-cell function (HOMA +47.7%, P < 0.001)↓Triglyceride (−16.6%, P = 0.018). ↑HDL cholesterol (+12.6%, P = 0.007)
Rosiglitazone
    Mayerson et al. (36)Rosiglitazone 4 mg twice daily9 patients with type 2 diabetes10–12 weeks of treatment↑Insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism (from baseline), low dose 68% (P < 0.02), high dose 20% (P < 0.016)From baseline: ↓FFA (∼40%, P < 0.005), ↓hepatic triglyceride (∼40%, P < 0.005), ↑extramyocellular lipids (39%, P < 0.05), ↑adipocyte lipolysis in response to insulin (52%, P = 0.04)
    Patel et al. (37)Rosiglitazone 1 and 2 mg twice daily vs. placebo380 patients with type 2 diabetes12 weeks of treatmentFrom baseline: ↓FPG (P = 0.001), ↓fructosamine (2 mg twice daily, P = 0.003), ↓plasma insulin (2 mg twice daily, P = 0.004)From baseline: ↓FFA (P = 0.001); 2 mg twice daily: ↑HDL cholesterol (P = 0.0009), ↑total cholesterol (P = 0.0001), ↑LDL cholesterol (P = 0.0001)
  • HOMA, homeostasis model assessment.