TABLE 1

Characteristics of the subject groups

CharacteristicNDCWCDPCD
n132527
Age (years)51.8 ± 7.958.2 ± 16.8*50.6 ± 16.1
Sex (male/female)7/516/912/15
Ratio of type 1 to type 2 diabetic patients7:1614:13
Duration of diabetes (years)12.4 ± 12.716.0 ± 11.9
A1C (%)ND6.01 ± 0.6010.11 ± 0.76
BMI (kg/m2)25.0 ± 3.428.7 ± 4.8§29.5 ± 8.9
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)125 ± 5136 ± 15134 ± 22
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)75 ± 677 ± 979 ± 8
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)5.17 ± 0.654.81 ± 1.155.14 ± 1.10
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.15 ± 0.612.59 ± 1.072.89 ± 0.90
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.54 ± 0.311.44 ± 0.471.30 ± 0.36
Family history of diabetes (n)41212
Current smoker (n)042
Vascular complications
    Microvascular (n)0511
    Macrovascular (n)012
  • Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated. NDC, nondiabetic subjects; WCD, well-controlled diabetic patients; PCD, poorly controlled diabetic patients.

  • *

    * P = 0.0143 vs. NDC.

  • P = 0.0279 vs. WCD.

  • One type 2 diabetic subject in the poorly controlled group was GAD antibody positive.

  • §

    § P = 0.0249 vs. NDC.

  • P = 0.0078 vs. NDC.

  • P = 0.0007 vs. NDC.