TABLE 1

Characteristics of the subjects with IGT and type 2 diabetes and of the control subjects from the KORA Survey S4 population (age 55–74 years, 1999–2001)

Control subjectsIGTType 2 diabetes
Sex (M/F)137/107130/112137/99
Age (years)65.3 ± 5.3 (244)65.3 ± 5.2 (242)65.1 ± 5.1 (236)
BMI (kg/m2)27.4 ± 3.7 (242)29.7 ± 4.0* (241)30.9 ± 4.5* (232)
Waist-to-hip ratio0.90 ± 0.08 (243)0.92 ± 0.07 (242)0.94 ± 0.08* (235)
Body fat (kg)27.3 ± 6.6 (238)30.7 ± 6.9* (240)32.8 ± 8.4* (224)
Body fat (%)35.8 ± 5.5 (238)38.1 ± 5.5* (240)38.6 ± 5.9* (224)
Fat-free mass (kg)48.7 ± 8.7 (238)49.8 ± 8.1 (240)51.7 ± 8.6* (224)
HOMA-IR1.95 (1.37–2.99) (243)3.06* (2.20–4.60) (240)4.54* (2.65–7.61) (118)
A1C (%)5.6 (5.3–5.8) (244)5.6 (5.4–5.9) (242)6.4* (5.9–7.2) (233)
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)243 ± 45 (243)243 ± 41 (242)235 ± 46§ (233)
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)155 ± 43 (242)156 ± 38 (242)146 ± 41§ (232)
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)59 ± 17 (242)55 ± 15§ (242)50 ± 14* (233)
Fasting triglycerides (mg/dl)106 (80–144) (237)125* (96–174) (241)141* (107–196) (135)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)131 ± 18 (169)139 ± 20* (118)146 ± 21* (106)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)78 ± 10 (169)81 ± 9§ (118)84 ± 11* (106)
Uric acid (mg/dl)5.5 ± 1.3 (244)6.1 ± 1.4* (242)6.1 ± 1.5* (233)
Serum albumin (g/l)38.2 ± 4.1 (243)38.5 ± 4.0 (241)38.5 ± 4.1 (228)
Leukocyte count (×10−3/μl)5.88 ± 1.28 (244)6.30 ± 1.61 (242)6.99 ± 1.99* (233)
CRP (mg/l)1.27 (0.68–2.98) (243)2.39* (1.25–4.44) (241)2.52* (1.13–5.63) (228)
IL-6 (pg/ml)1.69 (0.68–2.90) (241)2.32* (1.32–3.54) (240)2.48* (1.28–4.80) (230)
  • Data with Gaussian distribution are means ± SD (n), whereas data with non-Gaussian distribution are medians (interquartile range) (n). For dichotomous variables, absolute numbers are given. Dichotomous variables, variables with Gaussian distribution, and variables with non-Gaussian distribution were compared with controls using the Fisher’s exact test, t test, and Wilcoxon’s test, respectively. HOMA-IR, insulin resistance measured by homeostasis model assessment.

  • *

    * P < 0.001,

  • P < 0.01 compared with normoglycemic control subjects.

  • Patients with a history of diabetes who did not provide fasting blood samples were excluded.

  • §

    § P < 0.05 compared with normoglycemic control subjects.

  • Patients on antihypertensive medication were excluded.