Factors other than immunotherapies that may affect the natural course of β-cell failure in type 1 diabetes

AgeYounger-aged subjects have lower residual insulin production at presentation.19, 53, 57, 65
AutoantibodiesMore rapid deterioration in β-cell function occurs in ICA+ individuals. Other autoantibodies may be less predictive.56, 57, 65
Insulin resistancePatients with type 1 diabetes often have evidence of insulin resistance, which may be an accelerator of the metabolic decompensation.29, 32, 33
SexSome but not all studies have suggested more rapid rates of decline in males.53, 65
Management of diabetesAggressive management of type 1 diabetes has been shown to reduce the decline in insulin production.6062