TABLE 1

Baseline characteristics of women according to vitamin E and placebo groups, WHS

CharacteristicVitamin EPlaceboTotalP value
n19,34719,36938,716
Age (years)54.6 ± 7.054.6 ± 7.054.6 ± 7.00.89
    45–5411,730 ± 60.611,743 ± 60.623,473 ± 60.60.92
    55–645,666 ± 29.35,651 ± 29.211,317 ± 29.2
    ≥651,951 ± 10.11,975 ± 10.23,926 ± 10.1
Smoking status
    Current2,515 (13.0)2,562 (13.2)5,077 (13.1)0.52
    Past6,971 (36.1)6,877 (35.5)13,848 (35.8)
    Never9,842 (50.9)9,913 (51.2)19,755 (51.1)
Alcohol Intake
    Never/rarely8,644 (44.7)8,523 (44.0)17,167 (44.4)0.18
    At least once a month10,696 (55.3)10,843 (56.0)21,539 (55.6)
Multivitamin use
    Yes7,599 (39.3)7,465 (38.5)15,064 (38.9)0.14
    No11,748 (60.7)11,904 (61.5)23,652 (61.1)
BMI (kg/m2)25.9 ± 4.9825.9 ± 4.9525.9 ± 4.960.94
    <259,784 ± 51.79,871 ± 52.019,655 ± 51.80.70
    25 to <305,887 ± 31.15,826 ± 30.711,713 ± 30.9
    ≥303,271 ± 17.33,292 ± 17.36,563 ± 17.3
Physical activity (kcal/week)979 ± 1,245973 ± 1,212976 ± 1,2290.66
    ≤1,00012,626 ± 66.112,566 ± 65.725,192 ± 65.90.34
    >1,0006,470 ± 33.96,573 ± 34.313,043 ± 34.1
Menopausal status and HT use
    Premenopausal5,349 (27.7)5,408 (28.0)10,757 (27.9)0.96
    Uncertain3,455 (17.9)3,471 (18.0)6,926 (17.9)
    Postmenopausal, current HT use5,845 (30.3)5,841 (30.2)11,686 (30.3)
    Postmenopausal, past HT use1,319 (6.83)1,308 (6.77)2,627 (6.80)
    Postmenopausal, never used HT3,331 (17.3)3,290 (17.0)6,621 (17.2)
Hypertension*
    Yes4,738 (24.5)4,852 (25.1)9,590 (24.8)0.20
    No14,607 (75.5)14,510 (74.9)29,117 (75.2)
Hyperlipidemia
    Yes5,565 (28.8)5,643 (29.2)11,208 (29.0)0.41
    No13,776 (71.2)13,716 (70.9)27,492 (71.0)
Family history of diabetes
    Yes4,801 (24.8)4,820 (24.9)9,621 (24.8)0.87
    No14,546 (75.2)14,549 (75.1)29,095 (75.2)
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%).

  • *

    * Hypertension was defined as a self-reported systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, or physician-diagnosed hypertension.

  • Hyperlipidemia was defined as a self-reported total cholesterol ≥240 mg/dl or physician-diagnosed high cholesterol.

  • Family history of diabetes was defined as self-reported diabetes in a first-degree relative. HT, hormone therapy.