TABLE 3

RRs and 95% CIs for type 2 diabetes comparing vitamin E and placebo groups, according to baseline characteristics, WHS

GroupnVitamin E (n)Placebo (n)RR (95% CI)*P valueMultivariate adjusted RR (95% CI)P value
Age (years)
    45–5423,4734654830.96 (0.85–1.09)0.560.98 (0.86–1.11)0.72
    55–6411,3172833110.91 (0.77–1.07)0.230.90 (0.76–1.06)0.20
    ≥653,92679751.06 (0.78–1.46)0.711.06 (0.77–1.46)0.72
Smoking status
    Current5,0771211340.91 (0.72–1.17)0.470.91 (0.71–1.18)0.47
    Past13,8482932990.97 (0.83–1.14)0.740.97 (0.83–1.15)0.76
    Never19,7554134350.95 (0.83–1.09)0.470.95 (0.83–1.09)0.48
Alcohol intake
    Never/rarely17,1675195160.99 (0.88–1.12)0.891.02 (0.90–1.15)0.82
    At least once a month21,5393083530.88 (0.76–1.03)0.110.88 (0.75–1.02)0.10
Multivitamin use
    Yes15,0642843110.90 (0.77–1.06)0.190.91 (0.77–1.07)0.25
    No23,6525435580.99 (0.88–1.11)0.820.99 (0.88–1.11)0.83
BMI (kg/m2)
    <2519,6551051170.91 (0.70–1.18)0.460.92 (0.70–1.19)0.52
    25 to <3011,7132522680.93 (0.78–1.10)0.380.93 (0.78–1.11)0.42
    ≥306,5634414630.96 (0.84–1.09)0.510.98 (0.86–1.12)0.77
Physical activity (kcal/week)
    ≤1,00025,1926016320.94 (0.84–1.06)0.310.96 (0.86–1.08)0.48
    >1,00013,0432082280.93 (0.77–1.12)0.420.95 (0.79–1.15)0.61
Menopausal status and HT use
    Premenopausal10,7571721830.95 (0.77–1.17)0.620.98 (0.79–1.22)0.86
    Uncertain6,9261751960.89 (0.73–1.10)0.280.89 (0.72–1.10)0.27
    Postmenopausal, current HT use11,6862062180.94 (0.78–1.14)0.540.96 (0.79–1.17)0.69
    Postmenopausal, past HT use2,62791831.10 (0.82–1.48)0.521.12 (0.82–1.52)0.47
    Postmenopausal, never used HT6,6211821830.98 (0.80–1.21)0.860.94 (0.76–1.16)0.56
Hypertension
    Yes9,5904224660.93 (0.81–1.06)0.250.92 (0.81–1.06)0.24
    No29,1174044031.00 (0.87–1.14)0.951.00 (0.87–1.15)0.97
Hyperlipidemia§
    Yes11,2083473810.92 (0.80–1.07)0.280.93 (0.80–1.08)0.34
    No27,4924804860.98 (0.87–1.11)0.770.97 (0.86–1.11)0.68
Randomized aspirin
    Yes19,3264054440.91 (0.80–1.04)0.170.92 (0.80–1.05)0.21
    No19,3904224250.99 (0.87–1.14)0.931.00 (0.87–1.15)0.99
Family history of diabetes
    Yes9,6213933781.05 (0.91–1.21)0.531.05 (0.91–1.21)0.54
    No29,0954344910.88 (0.78–1.00)0.060.89 (0.78–1.01)0.07
  • *

    * Adjusted for age and randomized assignment of aspirin and β-carotene.

  • Adjusted for age, aspirin assignment, β-carotene assignment, smoking status, alcohol intake, physical activity, BMI, history of high cholesterol or hypertension, multivitamin use, menopausal status and hormone therapy (HT) use, and family history of diabetes; none of the interactions were significant.

  • Hypertension was defined as a self-reported systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, or physician-diagnosed hypertension.

  • §

    § Hyperlipidemia was defined as a self-reported total cholesterol ≥240 mg/dl or physician-diagnosed high cholesterol.