TABLE 1

Clinical characteristics of participants in CT scan study by sex and DCCT treatment assignment

Female subjects
Male subjects
IntensiveConventionalIntensiveConventional
n297275300333
Age at entry into DCCT (years)27 ± 7*26 ± 728 ± 728 ± 7
DCCT follow-up (years)6.4 ± 1.76.3 ± 1.76.4 ± 1.76.1 ± 1.6
EDIC follow-up (years)9.2 ± 0.59.1 ± 0.59.1 ± 0.59.2 ± 0.5
DCCT baseline
    Retinopathy (negative by fundus photographs) (%)51494654
    Albumin excretion rate (mg/24 h)16 ± 2015 ± 1317 ± 2115 ± 20
    Diabetes duration (months)69 ± 5071 ± 5170 ± 5060 ± 46
Visit prior to or at time of CT scan
    Age (years)43 ± 7*42 ± 743 ± 743 ± 7
    Current smokers (%)15141815
    Diabetes Duration (years)21 ± 521 ± 521 ± 5π20 ± 5
    BMI (kg/m2)28 ± 527 ± 528 ± 428 ± 4
    Natural waist-to-hip ratio0.79 ± 0.070.78 ± 0.060.91 ± 0.060.90 ± 0.06
    Ankle-to-arm blood pressure ratio <0.9 (%)151278
    Systolic BP (mmHg)120 ± 14120 ± 15123 ± 13125 ± 15
    Diastolic BP (mmHg)75 ± 974 ± 978 ± 978 ± 10
    Hypertensive (%)§293635¶46
    Aspirin ≥14 tablets per month (%)222526§33
    Menopause (%)2621
    One or both parents with diabetes (%)20151719
    Carotid IMT year 60.60 ± 0.110.59 ± 0.100.63 ± 0.100.65 ± 0.14
Lipids
    Total cholesterol (mmol/l)4.94 ± 0.954.83 ± 0.844.81 ± 0.904.73 ± 0.85
    HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.59 ± 0.381.62 ± 0.381.31 ± 0.351.32 ± 0.30
    LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)2.89 ± 0.762.81 ± 0.692.98 ± 0.762.92 ± 0.74
    LDL-to-HDL ratio1.9 ± 0.81.8 ± 0.62.4 ± 0.92.3 ± 0.8
    Triglycerides (mmol/l)0.95 ± 0.640.89 ± 0.581.15 ± 0.881.06 ± 0.61
    Hypercholesterolemia (%)30294440
Renal
    Albumin excretion rate (mg/24 h)36 ± 19484 ± 370105 ± 731234 ± 863
    Albumin excretion rate >40 mg/24 h (%)9181326
A1C
    At DCCT eligibility9.2 ± 1.69.1 ± 1.79.0 ± 1.68.8 ± 1.6
    Mean during DCCT7.3 ± 0.99.1 ± 1.47.2 ± 0.98.9 ± 1.1
    At DCCT closeout7.3 ± 1.09.1 ± 1.87.4 ± 1.19.1 ± 1.3
    Mean during EDIC8.1 ± 1.28.1 ± 1.28.0 ± 1.18.2 ± 1.1
    Mean at visit prior to CT8.0 ± 1.47.9 ± 1.57.9 ± 1.27.9 ± 1.3
    Mean during combined DCCT/EDIC7.8 ± 0.98.5 ± 1.17.7 ± 1.08.5 ± 1.0
  • Data are the means ± SD unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * P < 0.05,

  • P < 0.01, and

  • P < 0.001 for intensive vs. conventional.

  • LDL ≥130 or using anti-lipid agents;

  • §

    § defined as systolic ≥140 or diastolic ≥90 mmHg, or hypertension has been documented, or using antihypertensive agents.