TABLE 3

Risk factor analysis for CAC

CovariatesGeometric mean ratio of CAC scores (95% CI)*χ2P value
Sex (male versus female)3.4 (1.4–8.3)6.80.0091
Scanning site (n = 19)28.10.0611
DCCT baseline
    Age (year)1.3 (1.2–1.4)81.7<0.0001
    Diabetes duration (year)1.3 (1.1–1.6)4.10.0441
    Albumin excretion rate (mg/24 h)1.3 (1.1–1.5)7.30.0069
    Cohort (primary versus secondary)1.7 (0.7–4.4)1.20.2651
EDIC year 7–9 (prior to CT scan)
    Smoking (yes versus no)7.1 (3.0–16.9)19.7<0.0001
    Waist-to-hip ratio (%)2.6 (1.5–4.5)11.50.0007
    Hypercholesterolemia (yes versus no)2.8 (1.4–5.7)8.60.0033
    Hypertension (yes versus no)2.8 (1.4–5.7)8.60.0034
DCCT mean A1C1.4 (1.1–1.7)9.30.0022
  • Analysis was performed using Tobit regression: Y = log CT − log (lowest detectable CT score).

  • *

    * Geometric mean ratio of CAC scores is the ratio of predicted CAC scores for a 1-unit increase in quantitative variables or change in status for dichotomous variables if without notation;

  • geometric mean ratio of CAC scores is based on 10 mg/24 h increase in albumin excretion rate, 10% increase in waist-to-hip ratio, and 10% increase in DCCT mean A1C.