TABLE 1

Clinical characteristics of the study subjects

CON groupDM1-NA groupDM1-MA group
n777
Duration of diabetes (years)29 ± 1332 ± 7
Daily insulin use (IU)50 ± 1848 ± 17
Age (years)52 ± 1147 ± 1251 ± 10
BMI (kg/m2)24 ± 423 ± 224 ± 3
Smoking (yes/no)0/70/70/7
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)134 ± 18137 ± 10150 ± 17
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)74 ± 1077 ± 780 ± 9
Heart rate (bpm)64 ± 764 ± 1070 ± 10
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)5.1 ± 0.49.1 ± 2.4*9.3 ± 2.2*
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)4.8 ± 0.84.8 ± 1.04.8 ± 0.8
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.0 ± 0.62.9 ± 0.92.6 ± 0.8
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.5 ± 0.31.6 ± 0.41.9 ± 0.4
Triglycerides (mmol/l)0.6 ± 0.20.6 ± 0.20.6 ± 0.2
Albumin-to-creatinine ratio (mg/mmol)0.4 ± 0.10.8 ± 0.730 ± 27*
Plasma creatinine (μmol/l)69 ± 667 ± 686 ± 1*
Aspartate aminotransferase (U/l)21.9 ± 5.923.9 ± 4.624.0 ± 5.0
Alanine aminotransferase (U/l)22.0 ± 11.622.6 ± 8.119.3 ± 5.1
A1C (%)5.2 ± 0.37.7 ± 0.6*8.3 ± 1.0*
High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (mg/l)1.3 ± 1.11.6 ± 1.22.8 ± 1.6
  • Data are means ± SD.

  • *

    * P < 0.05 control vs. diabetic subjects.

  • P < 0.05 DM1-NA vs. DM1-MA subjects.