TABLE 2

Positional candidate genes on chromosome 11

NameGene symbolLocation
Role
Genetic (cM)Physical (bp)
Muscle glycogen phosphorylasePYGM70.464,270,606Catalyzes and regulates the breakdown of glycogen to glucose-1-phosphate
Calpain 1CAPN170.864,705,919Calcium-activated cysteine protease; proteolytic cleavage of PTP-1B (27,28), a type 2 diabetes candidate gene
PC precursorPC71.866,372,572Catalyzes the carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate; involved in gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, insulin secretion, and synthesis of the neurotransmitter glutamate
Galanin preproproteinGAL72.968,208,611Inhibits basal insulin and somatostatin secretion and stimulates basal glucagons secretion from the pancreas (29)
Inositol polyphosphate phosphatase-like 1INPPL178.371,613,473Negative regulator of insulin signaling and insulin sensitivity (30)
Uncoupling protein 2UCP280.573,363,364Inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (31)
Uncoupling protein 3UCP380.573,388,985
Calpain 5CAPN582.976,455,640Member of the same family of cysteine proteases as type 2 diabetes–susceptibility gene calpain 10
Thyroid hormone responsiveTHRSP83.777,452,572Expressed in the liver and adipocytes; implicated in lipogenesis
  • PTP-1B, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.