TABLE 3

Serum zonulin as an early marker for type 1 diabetes in humans

Subject numberAge (years)Age onset (years)Age at blood drawingGAD-Ab*IA-2-Ab*Zonulin* (ng/mg protein)
Group 1: Type 1 diabetic subjects whose blood was drawn after the onset of the disease
1186962.62209.767.1
223111655.20.450.2
3239130.9716.580.5
425111575.381.761.3
517673.890.331.8
6231214N.D.N.D.0.3
71134N.D.N.D.0.4
8175890.5787.30.7
Group 2: Subjects at risk for type 1 diabetes and positive autoantibodies (potential type 1 diabetes)
123191416.881.921.0
2146595.12198.812.3
320151052.19161.770.5
41410713.233.881.1
527NA2085.1511.450.2
625NA164.790.40.1
723NA134.76150.640.9
828NA1931.71181.50.9
919NA1084.288.571.4
1025NA1629.462.901.1
Group 3: Subjects at risk for type 1 diabetes who did not develop the disease
151NA420.390.570.3
224NA150.570.440.4
350NA400.280.270.5
433NA240.590.430.8
541NA320.890.531.3
652NA430.420.380.2
742NA330.390.410.1
843NA330.370.390.4
943NA330.450.360.3
1058NA480.570.330.6
1155NA450.360.410.7
1235NA28N.D.N.D.0.2
1337NA30N.D.N.D.0.4
1462NA550.470.550.2
1547NA380.340.370.5
  • *

    * Abnormal values are identified in bold.