TABLE 1

Demographic and general medical characteristics of patients and control subjects

CharacteristicControl subjectsType 1 diabetic patients
n (male/female)40 (16/24)40 (23/17)
Mean age (years)*61.6 ± 560.9 ± 6†
Education level (median)4 (4–5)5 (4–6)§
Estimated IQ101.2 ± 14.1108.1 ± 11.7§
BMI (kg/m2)27.3 ± 5.123.7 ± 2.3
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)135.2 ± 18.8142.0 ± 22.6
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)79.7 ± 11.173.5 ± 9.9§
Hypertension (%)*3845†
Atherosclerotic disease (%)*#2025†**
Fasting triglycerides (mmol/l)1.7 ± 1.20.9 ± 0.5
Fasting serum cholesterol (mmol/l)5.9 ± 1.15.3 ± 0.9§
Hypercholesterolemia (%)*††4835†
A1C (%)*5.5 ± 0.47.7 ± 1.0†
Retrograde A1C (%)*‡‡7.7 ± 0.9†
  • Data are given as means ± SD or median (interquartile range) unless otherwise indicated.

  • §

    § P < 0.05;

  • P < 0.001.

  • *

    * Entered as explanatory variable in exploratory regression analyses with cognition or MRI as dependent variables within the type 1 diabetic group; statistically significant association with any cognitive domain scores are indicated as

  • **

    ** P < 0.05; statistically significant association with any MRI outcome measure are indicated as **P < 0.05. Details are provided in results.

  • Education level was recorded using seven categories that can be transferred to years of education: <6, 6–7, 8–9, 10–11, 12–18, and >18, respectively.

  • Hypertension is defined as an average systolic blood pressure ≥160 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥95 mmHg and/or self-reported use of blood pressure–lowering drugs.

  • #

    # Atherosclerotic disease is defined as suffering from self-reported angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, stroke, or intermittent claudication.

  • ††

    †† Hypercholesterolemia is defined as a fasting cholesterol >6.2 mmol/l and/or self-reported use of cholesterol lowering drugs.

  • ‡‡

    ‡‡ Retrograde data (up to 5 years, mean 3.9 years, mean intra-individual variation coefficient 4.1%) on A1C levels were obtained through the case records.