TABLE 2

Diabetic characteristics of type 1 diabetic patients

CharacteristicType 1 diabetic patients
Duration of diabetes (years)*34.0 ± 12.8
Use of insulin pump*48
Disease onset before age 18 years*33
Previous severe hypoglycemic event requiring assistance*75
Hypoglycemic event leading to seizure or unconsciousness*§65
Retinopathy58
Retinopathy with laser treatment65
Neuropathy45
Diabetic foot9
Microvascular complications*70
  • Data are means ± SD or percent.

  • *

    * Entered as explanatory variable in exploratory regression analyses with cognition or MRI as dependent variables within the type 1 diabetic group; statistically significant association with any cognitive domain scores are indicated as

  • P < 0.05; statistically significant association with any MRI outcome measure are indicated as

  • P < 0.05. Details are provided in results.

  • §

    § In the regression analyses, the group that experienced hypoglycemia with seizure or unconsciousness was compared with the group that never experienced any severe hypoglycemic event.

  • Microvascular complications were entered in the exploratory regression analyses in two ways: as a dichotomous variable defined as the absence or presence of retinopathy or neuropathy or as a sumscore (range 0–3) in which 1 point was given for neuropathy, 1 point for retinopathy without laser treatment, or 2 points for retinopathy with laser treatment. Neither analysis showed significant associations with MRI or cognition.