TABLE 3

Multiple regression models showing the effect of diabetes on arm and leg muscle quality, stratified by sex

Men
Women
β for diabetesSEP valueβ for diabetesSEP value
Arm muscle quality (kg/kg)
    Unadjusted−0.890.16<0.001−1.050.22<0.001
    Model 1−0.840.16<0.001−0.850.22<0.001
    Model 2−0.530.160.001−0.430.210.043
    Model 3−0.500.160.002−0.340.220.111
Leg muscle quality (Nm/kg)
    Unadjusted−1.100.22<0.001−0.870.24<0.001
    Model 1−1.010.22<0.001−0.610.240.011
    Model 2−0.840.22<0.001−0.190.230.404
    Model 3−0.800.22<0.001−0.150.240.524
  • Adjustments of covariates were performed using multiple regression analyses by cumulatively adding the following covariates into the model. Model 1, race, age, clinic site, and physical activity; model 2, model 1 + BMI; model 3, model 2 + smoking, drinking, comorbidity score, impaired vision, and renal insufficiency. Nm, Newton meters.