TABLE 1

Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of subjects included in the albuminuria and renal insufficiency models

VariableAlbuminuria modelsRenal insufficiency models
n4,0315,032
Age at diagnosis (years)52.6 ± 8.752.4 ± 8.8
Male2,433 (60)2,969 (59)
Ethnicity
    White Caucasian3,320 (82)4,155 (82)
    Afro-Caribbean307 (7.6)385 (7.6)
    Indian Asian404 (10.0)492 (9.7)
Smoking status
    Current smoker1,235 (30)1,556 (31)
    Ex-smoker1,389 (34)1,694 (33)
    Never smoked1,405 (35)1,780 (35)
Urinary albumin (mg/l)*9 (4–20)9 (4–20)
Plasma creatinine (μmol/l)*82 (71–92)81 (71–92)
BMI (kg/m2)27.7 ± 5.327.5 ± 5.4
Waist (cm)96 ± 1395 ± 13
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)135 ± 20135 ± 20
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)83 ± 1083 ± 11
Hypertensive1,820 (45)2,255 (44)
On antihypertensive therapy800 (20)966 (19)
FPG (mmol/l)*8.0 (6.6–10.1)8.2 (6.8–11.0)
A1C (%)*6.9 (5.9–8.1)6.9 (5.9–8.1)
HOMA %B*55.9 (34.5–84.0)55.5 (34.3–83.3)
HOMA %S*52.1 (36.3–75.1)51.7 (36.1–74.9)
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)5.38 ± 1.135.39 ± 1.12
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.50 ± 1.033.51 ± 1.03
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.07 ± 0.241.07 ± 0.24
Plasma triglycerides (mmol/l)1.54 (0.92–2.56)1.55 (0.93–2.59)
White blood cell count (× 109/l)6.6 (5.5–8.1)6.6 (5.5–8.1)
Previous retinopathy543 (19)681 (20)
Previous sensory neuropathy847 (22)1094 (22)
Previous CVD761 (19)974 (19)
  • Data are the means ± SD or n (%), unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * Median (interquartile range);

  • geometric mean (1-SD interval).