TABLE 2

Univariate proportional hazards analyses for albuminuria and renal insufficiency outcomes

VariableAlbuminuria (n = 4,031)
Renal insufficiency (n = 5,032)
Microalbuminuria (N events = 1,430)
Macroalbuminuria (N events = 420)
Creatinine clearance ≤60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (N events = 1,428)
Doubling of plasma creatinine (N events = 169)
HR (95% CI)PHR (95% CI)PHR (95% CI)PHR (95% CI)P
Age at diagnosis (per 5 years)1.04 (1.00–1.09)0.081.06 (0.97–1.16)0.182.07 (1.98–2.17)<0.00011.06 (0.91–1.23)0.48
Sex (male)1.18 (1.00–1.39)0.0451.42 (1.05–1.93)0.0230.53 (0.48–0.59)<0.00010.73 (0.43–1.22)0.22
Ethnicity
    White Caucasian1111
    Afro-Caribbean0.98 (0.72–1.35)0.920.94 (0.52–1.70)0.841.17 (0.98–1.41)0.0850.69 (0.21–2.21)0.53
    Indian Asian1.60 (1.26–2.05)0.000151.72 (1.13–2.62)0.0110.76 (0.62–0.93)0.00650.97 (0.39–2.44)0.95
Smoking status
    Never1111
    Ever1.28 (1.08–1.51)0.00461.31 (0.96–1.79)0.0880.93 (0.83–1.04)0.191.31 (0.75–2.28)0.35
Urinary albumin (per 20 mg/l)1.009 (1.06–1.011)<0.00011.010 (1.007–1.013)<0.00011.003 (0.999–1.008)0.141.008 (1.003–1.014)0.0019
Plasma creatinine (per 10 μmol/l)1.21 (0.99–1.05)0.201.010 (1.038–1.157)0.000931.18 (1.14–1.21)<0.00010.90 (0.82–0.99)0.032
Weight (per 5 kg)1.05 (1.03–1.08)<0.00011.05 (1.01–1.10)0.0140.762 (0.745–0.779)<0.00011.03 (0.95–1.12)0.45
Waist (cm)1.017 (1.013–1.021)<0.00011.021 (1.014–1.029)<0.00010.960 (0.955–0.965)<0.00011.005 (0.993–1.017)0.41
Height (cm)1.00 (0.99–1.01)0.751.00 (0.99–1.01)0.751.07 (1.05–1.08)<0.00010.98 (0.95–1.00)0.052
Systolic blood pressure (per 10 mmHg)1.17 (1.13–1.22)<0.00011.18 (1.10–1.26)<0.00011.20 (1.17–1.23)<0.00011.36 (1.22–1.52)<0.0001
Diastolic blood pressure (per 10 mmHg)1.24 (1.14–1.34)<0.00011.16 (1.00–1.34)0.0471.07 (1.02–1.13)0.00621.80 (1.41–2.28)<0.0001
Hypertensive1.49 (1.28–1.75)<0.00011.74 (1.31–2.33)0.000161.90 (1.71–2.11)<0.00013.09 (1.77–5.39)<0.0001
On antihypertensive therapy1.28 (1.07–1.55)0.00871.52 (1.10–2.10)0.0121.74 (1.55–1.97)<0.00011.54 (0.86–2.74)0.14
FPG (mmol/l)1.07 (1.05–1.10)<0.00011.08 (1.03–1.13)0.000811.021 (1.007–1.035)0.00361.09 (1.01–1.18)0.019
A1C (%)1.08 (1.03–1.12)0.00041.10 (1.02–1.18)0.0151.05 (1.02–1.08)0.00161.06 (0.93–1.22)0.37
HOMA %B (per 10%)0.99 (0.97–1.01)0.160.97 (0.94–1.01)0.180.97 (0.95–0.98)0.0000340.96 (0.89–1.03)0.26
HOMA %S (per 10%)0.97 (0.95–0.99)0.00440.95 (0.91–0.99)0.0191.02 (1.01–1.03)0.0000120.97 (0.90–1.03)0.32
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)1.08 (1.00–1.16)0.0421.20 (1.06–1.36)0.00371.20 (1.15–1.26)<0.00011.04 (0.82–1.32)0.75
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.07 (0.99–1.15)0.0881.17 (1.02–1.34)0.0261.22 (1.15–1.28)<0.00011.07 (0.83–1.38)0.59
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)0.69 (0.49–0.96)0.0260.53 (0.28–0.99)0.0481.85 (1.50–2.28)<0.00011.67 (0.60–4.64)0.33
Plasma triglycerides mmol/l)*1.13 (1.07–1.19)<0.00011.19 (1.11–1.27)<0.00010.96 (0.86–1.07)0.440.86 (0.63–1.16)0.32
White cell count (109/l)1.07 (1.03–1.11)0.000371.07 (1.00–1.14)0.0560.98 (0.95–1.00)0.0930.99 (0.87–1.13)0.86
Previous retinopathy1.36 (1.12–1.64)0.00171.46 (1.05–2.05)0.0271.38 (1.18–1.61)0.0000431.78 (1.00–3.16)0.051
Previous sensory neuropathy1.16 (0.96–1.40)0.131.40 (1.01–1.96)0.0451.36 (1.21–1.54)<0.00011.45 (0.81–2.61)0.22
Previous CVD1.58 (1.31–1.90)<0.00011.64 (1.18–2.28)0.0031.71 (1.51–1.93)<0.00011.22 (0.65–2.31)0.54
  • *

    * Log10transformed.